Observations of shorebird migration at Hay-Zama Lakes and Kimiwan Lake, Alberta: 2001−2003
Gerard W. Beyersbergen
Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), Prairie and Northern Region 2009
Canadian Wildlife Service
Technical Report Series Number 506
Photos: © G. W. Beyersbergen, 2013
Table of Contents
- 1.0 Introduction
- 2.0 Study Area
- 3.0 Methods
- 4.0 Results and Discussion
- 5.0 Conclusions
- 6.0 Acknowledgements
- 7.0 Bibliography
- 8.0 Appendices
List of Figures
- Figure 1. Hay-Zama Lakes wetland complex in northwest Alberta, north of the Town of Rainbow Lake, Alberta
- Figure 2. Location of Kimiwan Lake in north-central Alberta near the Town of McLennan, Alberta
List of Tables
- Table 1. Shorebird observations recorded during aerial surveys of the Hay-Zama Lakes wetland complex in 2001
- Table 2. Shorebird observations during an aerial survey of the Hay-Zama Lakes wetland complex on 20 May 2002
- Table 3. Shorebird observations recorded during an aerial survey of the Hay-Zama Lakes wetland complex on 13 August 2002
- Table 4. Shorebird observations recorded during aerial surveys of the Hay-Zama Lakes wetland complex in May 2003
- Table 5. Shorebird observations recorded during aerial and ground counts at Kimiwan Lake in 2001
- Table 6. Shorebird observations recorded during ground surveys at Kimiwan Lake in 2002
- Table 7. Shorebird observations recorded during ground surveys at Kimiwan Lake in 2003
List of Appendices
- Appendix 1. Scientific names, species American Ornithological Union (AOU) alpha-codes and size categories for shorebirds and plants recorded during surveys on Hay-Zama and Kimiwan lakes, Alberta
- Appendix 2. Field data form for audio cassette tape recordings of shorebird observations
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Observations of shorebird migration at Hay-Zama Lakes and Kimiwan Lake, Alberta: 2001–2003
Gerard W. Beyersbergen
Canadian Wildlife Service
9250, 49 Street NW,
Edmonton AB T6B 1K5
This report may be cited as follows:
Beyersbergen, G. W. 2009. Observations of shorebird migration at Hay-Zama Lakes and Kimiwan Lake, Alberta: 2001–2003. Canadian Wildlife Service Technical Report Series Number 506, Prairie and Northern Region. Edmonton, Alberta.
The Hay-Zama Lakes Wetland complex in northwest Alberta and Kimiwan Lake in north-central Alberta were surveyed during the spring and fall migration of 2001−2003 to determine their use by migrating shorebirds. Aerial surveys were the primary survey method at Hay-Zama because ground access was difficult, while mostly ground surveys, on all-terrain vehicle and on foot, were conducted on Kimiwan Lake. Two aerial surveys were conducted in each of the three years at Hay-Zama, while one aerial survey, in May 2001, was conducted on Kimiwan Lake. All ground surveys on Kimiwan Lake were conducted in May, with two partial surveys in 2001, three shoreline surveys in 2002 and four in 2003. Aerial surveys limited our ability to identify the majority of shorebird species on the Hay-Zama wetland complex but 23 species of shorebirds were identified using Kimiwan Lake. The most abundant shorebird species on Kimiwan Lake were Dowitchers (Limnodromus spp.), Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) and Stilt Sandpipers (C. himantopus). Shorebird use of the Hay-Zama wetland complex was variable, with a low of 1753 birds counted in May 2003 to a high of 13,989 in May 2002. Shorebird numbers were higher on Kimiwan Lake with a one-day high of 24,500 in 2001, peak species count of 32,259 in 2002 and one-day high of 11,993 in 2003. The effects of high water and flooding into the upland influenced shorebird use on Hay-Zama in 2003, but even when conditions were suitable, shorebird use was limited compared to wetlands in the prairies. Kimiwan Lake had much higher levels of use, indicating its importance to migrant shorebirds. When conditions were ideal, as in 2002, it had high use by species such as the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana). Kimiwan Lake, because of its high shorebird numbers, meets the criteria to be designated as a Regional level shorebird reserve under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. Hay-Zama, although not observed to be an exceptional shorebird site during this study, still provides habitat under suitable conditions for local breeding as well as for northern migrant shorebirds, and historical records indicate that it may be heavily used by shorebirds in some years. Its protection would benefit not only shorebirds but also a host of other water-dependant wildlife.
The annual migration of shorebirds in North America between breeding and wintering areas occurs along three primary routes: the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the interior mid-continent. Many of these shorebirds undertake marathon flights of several thousand kilometres utilizing stored fat reserves converted into energy (Castro and Myers 1989, Gudmundsson et al. 1991, Harrington et al. 1991, McNeil and Cadieux 1972, Tsipoura and Burger 1999). However, some shorebirds may require numerous stopover areas of secure and suitable habitat with good food sources in order to replenish fat reserves for their migration.
Traditional stopover sites frequented by large numbers of shorebirds are well documented along the narrow corridor of suitable habitat of the coastal regions of North America. In the interior mid-continent region, shorebird migration occurs along a much broader front. This enables migrant shorebirds the opportunity to take advantage of available wetland habitat that varies significantly from year to year and region to region.
These networks of shorebird staging sites along the coast and in the continent’s interior have been identified as being extremely important in the annual shorebird migration cycle (Harrington and Perry 1995, Morrison et al. 1995). The chain of sites located in Canada’s Prairie provinces were initially identified in 1987 and are being further studied along with new sites located during the expanding survey effort.
Prairie wetlands are hydrologically dynamic, with wetland availability and condition varying substantially within and between years, depending on seasonal precipitation and regional weather patterns. Shorebirds adapt readily to these changing water regimes and are quite opportunistic in their use of available wetland habitat. The prairie region, especially in the spring, provides numerous and variable wetland habitats important for migrant, northern nesting and prairie breeding shorebirds (Colwell and Oring 1988, Skagen and Knopf 1994, Niemuth et al. 2006). Aerial surveys (Dickson and Smith 1988) were used to first document the shorebird migration staging areas across the Canadian prairies. The 1987 aerial surveys, although limited to a one-day window of observation, identified several lakes on the prairie landscape that hosted high numbers of shorebirds. The survey provided a priority list of lakes that required more intensive ground surveys. These intensive ground surveys were first initiated at the Quill Lakes (Alexander and Gratto-Trevor 1997) and successively at a number of additional sites to identify key shorebird species, monitor shorebird numbers and provide chronological data at these sites. Completed reports or published papers on the results of shorebird surveys are available for Kutawagan Lake wetland complex (Beyersbergen and Norton 2005), Luck Lake (Norton and Beyersbergen 2002, Beyersbergen 2009), Chaplin, Old Wives, and Reed lakes (Beyersbergen and Duncan 2007), and the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Beyersbergen 2004).
The Hay-Zama Lakes Complex lies above extensive oil and gas reserves, and initial exploration and extraction processes began in the 1960s. The Hay-Zama Committee, which includes government and non-government groups, industry and the Dene Tha First Nation, was established in 1985 to address cultural, economic and environmental concerns related to the oil and gas activities in the wetland complex. Part of their responsibility was to initiate wildlife surveys of the area, primarily those related to the wetland complex. Surveys were initiated for waterfowl in the late 1980s, in which observations of shorebirds were noted, but detailed records were minimal. Flocks of 5,000–10,000 Dowitcher spp. (Appendix 1–scientific names) were observed on the complex in the late 1980s (Pollard et al. 1990), and thousands of shorebirds were seen during aerial surveys in the late 1990s (K. Wright, Alberta Conservation Association, pers. comm.). Large numbers of dead and decaying shorebirds were picked up during a botulism outbreak on the wetland complex in 2000 (K. Morton, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, pers. comm.). American Avocet was first observed nesting on the complex on 21 June 2001 when several pairs, each with a nest (with eggs and young), were found during an airboat trip on the complex (K. Morton, pers. comm.).
The first recorded observation of shorebird use of Kimiwan Lake was the 1987 aerial shorebird survey conducted across the Canadian Prairie provinces (Smith and Dickson 1989). Spring aerial survey results showed nearly 21,000 shorebirds using the lake, while fall aerial survey numbers were much reduced at 8,500 shorebirds. During several ground surveys in late August 1987, a peak one-day count of 10,000 shorebirds, including 2,000 Lesser Yellowlegs, was observed on the lake. On another day, 5,000 Dowitchers spp. were recorded and a total of 9,000 shorebirds. The Kimiwan Lake Nature Centre, on the south shore of the lake, maintains records of species of shorebirds observed at the lake, but no systematic shorebird surveys to estimate numbers using the lake are conducted.
The focus of this study was to use systematic aerial and ground surveys to quantify migrant northern-nesting and local-breeding shorebird use of Kimiwan Lake and the Hay-Zama lakes in the boreal region of north-western Alberta. The resulting information will be used to evaluate the significance and degree of importance of these lakes in providing staging, resting and feeding areas for shorebirds during their annual cycle.
2.0 Study Area
The Hay-Zama Lakes Complex (Figure 1) is located in the Hay River drainage in the northwest corner of Alberta and is part of the mid-boreal mixed wood eco-region (Poston el al. 1990). The wetland complex, approximately 48,600 hectares in size, is a large lowland region comprising marshes, eutrophic freshwater lakes, willow-ringed wetlands, floodplain woodlands and wet sedge meadows. It is characterized by extreme seasonal and annual water level fluctuations (Alberta Wilderness Association - Hay-Zama). Spring runoff, including timing and amount, and high precipitation events influence the level of inflow of the Hay River and numerous smaller tributaries (e.g. Amber, Omega) that feed into the complex. During high runoff periods, the interaction of several tributaries results in flooding of the larger lakes as well as the closed wetlands within the complex that are not directly fed by any tributary. The larger, flooded basins will eventually be drawn down by the streams flowing out of the complex while the smaller, closed wetlands hold water later into the summer.
Kimiwan Lake (Figure 2) is located in the mid-boreal mixed wood eco-region and is part of the Winagami Lake Plain habitat sub-region (Poston et al. 1990). The eastern boundary of the lake is primarily wooded while the remainder of the lake is bounded by crop and grazing lands, except for the Town of McLennan on the south shore. The Kimiwan Birdwalk and Interpretive Centre, located on the south shore, provides an elevated walkway for access to the lake beyond the wet meadow zone for observation of birds on the water.
3.1 Shorebird Habitat
Shoreline habitat was subjectively identified based on its suitability for shorebirds. Suitable habitat was characterized as: (1) open shoreline, which included exposed mudflats (narrow or extensive), (2) short upland vegetation along mudflats, or (3) shallow water zones in the near-shore areas. Deep water shorelines with dense stands of emergent vegetation were not considered suitable for shorebirds, with the exception of deeper, open water areas that may provide foraging habitat for Red-necked Phalarope. Shorebird preference for specific habitat features was likely influenced by several factors including early detection of predators, access to variable types of feeding areas (near-shore upland habitat with short or sparse vegetation, bare ground shorelines, mudflats and shallow water) and disturbance-free resting habitat. Surveys were focused along the shoreline or edge of the lakes and basins. Suitability of upland habitat for shorebird use was not addressed in these surveys.
3.2 Aerial Surveys
Two aerial surveys of the Hay-Zama lakes complex were conducted each year from 2001 to 2003, using a rotary-winged aircraft at an altitude of about 30 m above ground level and air speed ranging between 100 to 130 km/h, depending on bird densities, habitat conditions and shoreline complexity. In the two 2001 surveys and during the spring survey in 2002, one shorebird observer participated in the waterfowl surveys that Alberta Conservation Association regularly flew over the complex (Wright 2000). The August survey in 2002 and both surveys in 2003 were specifically shorebird surveys with two observers. A single aerial survey of Kimiwan Lake, in May 2001, was conducted using a United States Fish and Wildlife Service fixed-wing aircraft present in the area for the spring waterfowl surveys, and one observer estimated shorebird numbers on the lake (D. Duncan, Canadian Wildlife Service, pers. comm.).
The shorebird observer(s) identified and counted all shorebirds and recorded the data on audio cassette recorders. The data recorded on shorebird observations included time, location, number of birds, and identification by species or size category (Appendix 1). Specific species identification was limited to small groups of shorebirds with distinguishable features such as larger size, colouration or flight pattern. The similarity of several species of smaller shorebirds, the mixing of multiple species of shorebirds in large flocks, and the speed of the aircraft resulted in the majority of shorebirds being identified only by size category. Data were transcribed from tape onto hard copy field data forms at the end of each day. These data were then entered into a computer spreadsheet file.
3.3 Ground Surveys
Ground surveys were not conducted on Hay-Zama lakes because of the lack of ground access to the basins where the shorebirds were observed during aerial surveys. There was limited but poor shorebird habitat on the shoreline parallel to a short stretch of gravel road north of the community of Assumption.
Kimiwan Lake was surveyed on foot from select access locations and by an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) around selected areas of the perimeter of the lake. The lakebed substrate was extremely soft, and travel by the ATV was restricted to the dry, vegetated areas close to the willow border on the lake. The survey was conducted by one or two observers. Surveys were conducted in mid- to late May, with an increased number of surveys in each successive year.
Shorebirds were identified using binoculars and/or a 15-60X spotting scope. The data were recorded using audio-cassette recorders and included the species or size category (Appendix 1), number of birds, and location by survey basin or shoreline segment. When birds could not be identified to the species level, they were categorized as small, medium, large or other (mixed/unidentified). Each day, observation data were transcribed onto hard copy field data forms after the surveys were completed (Appendix 2). These data were then entered into a computer database for later analysis.
4.0 Results and Discussion
4.1 Shorebird Habitat
Shorebird habitat was quite variable on the Hay-Zama complex during the three years of surveys and observations. The flooding of the lakes and large basins (sloughs)Footnote  and later drawdown of the water levels through drainage or evaporation resulted in the exposure of new mudflats. Similar to the situation observed on the wetlands of the Peace Athabasca Delta (Beyersbergen 2000), exposed mudflats are colonized by sedges and other vegetative growth. Without the annual and seasonal flooding cycle of these areas, most suitable shoreline habitat for roosting and feeding shorebirds would be restricted or eliminated. Habitat conditions were not noted during the initial surveys conducted in 2001. However, the numbers of shorebirds observed in select lakes (north shore of East Hay, entire perimeter of West Hay and southern portion of North Zama) indicated that suitable habitat conditions were present on the complex.
In May 2002, narrow mudflat expanses were evident along the shoreline of East and West Hay and the north shore of North Zama. Sloughs 3 and 7 had suitable habitat conditions along their southern shores. In August 2002, limited habitat was available for shorebirds along the north shore of East and West Hay, the complete perimeter of Duck Lake in the form of floating vegetation mats, and extensive mudflats on Sloughs 9 and 10.
Extremely high water levels in the complex in May 2003 limited shorebird habitat to a few locations, and even that habitat was marginal. Water was well into the surrounding willow and shrubs, and floating mats of vegetation provided some resting locations for groups of shorebirds along the north and eastern shores of East Hay. Shallow water and some mudflats were evident on Sloughs 9 and 10. Water levels appeared to have dropped slightly between the two surveys in 2003, but habitat was still very limited.
Kimiwan Lake had ideal shoreline conditions in May 2001 with extensive, bare mudflats between the willow perimeter and the water edge with widely scattered clumps of Reed Grass (Appendix 1) and areas of extensive Cattail stands. Observations were mostly restricted to foot access with limited ATV use because of the soft terrain. Water levels were lower in May 2002, and the mudflats encroached further into the lake proper. However, these bare mudflats were soon covered with the growth of spring vegetation including a variety of forbs species along the drier upland areas. The use of an ATV for surveys was feasible along a greater portion of the lake perimeter, but travel was still restricted to the willow perimeter, especially on the east side of the lake. Drought conditions persisted, and in May 2003, bare mudflats were minimal with extensive old and new forbs along the shoreline. The height of green growth vegetation along the water edge obscured the view and made observation and identification of shorebirds difficult at times.
4.2.1 Hay-Zama Lakes
The initial survey in 2001 was basically a reconnaissance survey to gain familiarity with the area. The early survey date also resulted in low numbers of shorebirds being observed. The highest use was observed on the West Hay basin with Yellowlegs spp., the dominant identifiable species group (Table 1) along with a few Hudsonian Godwits. More intense coverage of the complex was completed for shorebirds in the second survey, and again, the West Hay basin held the highest number of shorebirds. Most shorebirds were identified by size category except small numbers of a few species including Pectoral Sandpiper, Dowitcher spp. and Wilson’s Phalarope (Table 1).
In the single spring survey in 2002, observations reached totals of slightly under 14,000 shorebirds (Table 2). The basins referred to as West Hay, East Hay and Slough 3 had the highest use with shorebirds totalling 3,000−4,000 in each of the basins. Dowitcher spp. and Lesser Yellowlegs were the dominant species with numbers of 3,993 and 1,786 respectively. The American Avocet appears to have established itself as a breeding species in the complex with 14 adults detected during the survey.
Table 1. Shorebird observations recorded during aerial surveys of the Hay-Zama Lakes wetland complex in 2001
|North Zama||South Zama||Sand Lake||Slough|
|May 7 Total||266||850||370||70||38||142||75||1811|
|North Zama||South Zama||Sand Lake||Slough|
|July 24 Total||135||614||7307||751||902||443||5||10157|
|Species||Duck Lake||East Hay||West Hay||North Zama||South Zama||Sand Lake||Slough 3||Slough 4||Slough 7||Total|
The survey on 13 August 2002 may have been a little late in the fall migration period, as fewer than 5,000 shorebirds were observed (Table 3). The smaller wetland basins, Sloughs 9 and 10, showed the highest use with 2,013 and 1,160 respectively. Lesser Yellowlegs was once again the dominant identifiable species with American Avocet numbers comparable to the spring survey. Because no differentiation of age category was made for the avocet, evidence of production was not detected during the aerial survey.
|Species||Duck Lake||East Hay||West Hay||North Zama||Sand Lake||Slough 9||Slough 10||Total|
The surveys in 2003 were adversely affected by flooding of the complete wetland complex and the resulting lack of shoreline habitat for shorebirds. The first survey resulted in fewer than 2500 shorebird observations (Table 4). West Hay and Sand Lake had the highest use, and Lesser Yellowlegs and Dowitcher spp. were the most abundant species identified. The second survey resulted in a lower number of birds at 1753, with the same two species being the most abundant, while the greatest number of shorebirds were observed on Slough 10.
Table 4. Shorebird observations recorded during aerial surveys of the Hay-Zama Lakes wetland complex in May 2003
|Species||Duck Lake||East Hay||West Hay||North Zama||South Zama||Sand Lake||Slough 3||Slough 4||Slough 5||Slough 7||Slough 8||Slough 9||Slough 10||Total|
|May 17 Total||4||192||758||91||25||605||111||92||67||159||25||76||217||2422|
|Species||Duck Lake||East Hay||West Hay||North Zama||South Zama||Sand Lake||Slough 3||Slough 4||Slough 5||Slough 7||Slough 8||Slough 9||Slough 10||Total|
|May 20 Total||15||240||130||65||263||220||2||12||85||47||674||1753|
4.2.2 Kimiwan Lake
An aerial survey was conducted on 20 May 2001 (D. Duncan, Canadian Wildlife Service, pers. comm.) of the entire lake and resulted in the observation of 24,500 shorebirds (Table 5). Ground observations two days later from several select locations on the south and west shoreline of the lake enabled observers to identify the species of shorebirds using the lake. From these locations a sample of shorebirds (1188) were identified, with Pectoral Sandpiper and Semipalmated Sandpiper being the two dominant species at 458 and 353 birds respectively. A third survey on 30 May was again restricted to several locations on the south and west shoreline, and only a small proportion of the total shorebirds using the lake were counted and identified. Pectoral Sandpiper (504) was the dominant recorded species followed by Red-necked Phalarope (395) and American Avocet (180).
|American Golden Plover||18|
In 2002, three spring surveys conducted from 16–22 May covered the entire lake shoreline. Numbers of shorebirds increased each survey day, with numbers from 16,853 to 21,804 (Table 6). During the first survey, the 9,266 Dowitchers spp. observed on the lake accounted for a large proportion of the total shorebirds recorded followed by Semipalmated Sandpiper (2,998) and Lesser Yellowlegs (1,705). In the second survey, Dowitcher numbers declined to 6,327 birds while the number of Semipalmated Sandpiper doubled and American Avocet tripled. The third survey on 22 May showed Semipalmated Sandpiper numbers continued to rise (9,197) while Stilt Sandpipers increased to 6,970 birds. The Dowitcher migration through the area was near completion and numbers dropped to a few hundred birds. A corresponding increase in the number of Dowitchers was observed on Hay-Zama on 20 May. Numbers of American Avocets, which nest in the area, settled at similar levels to the previous survey. Red-necked phalarope numbers totalled 1,816 for the last survey. Logistic difficulties prevented further surveys on the site, although migrant shorebird numbers continued to climb for some species, so the peak for several species was not determined.
|Species||May 16||May 19||May 22||Species peak numbers|
The change in shoreline conditions at Kimiwan Lake in 2003 resulted in lower use of the site by migrating shorebirds. The first surveys resulted in the highest use at 11,993 birds, but numbers declined dramatically in the following surveys (Table 7). Semipalmated Sandpipers were the dominant species in the first two surveys followed by Dowitcher spp. and Pectoral Sandpiper. Red-necked Phalarope and Stilt Sandpiper accounted for most of the shorebirds observed during the third survey. The total number of shorebirds observed during the final survey was minimal at 184 birds. The poor habitat conditions along the shore were highlighted by the dramatic reduction in numbers of American Avocet, which normally nest at the lake but peaked at 10 birds.
|Species||May 14||May 19||May 24||May 27||Species peak numbers|
Surveys conducted on Kimiwan Lake and Hay-Zama Lakes in 2001–2003 show that these lakes provide important staging and breeding habitat for shorebirds when conditions are suitable. Water and habitat conditions greatly influence shorebird use of these lakes as was evident over the years of surveys. High-water conditions at Hay-Zama eliminated mudflats along the shoreline of some or all basins and forced shorebirds to concentrate on a few basins or in some cases probably to over-fly the area. Conversely, several years of low water conditions at Kimiwan Lake resulted in extensive growth of vegetation on the exposed mudflats and eliminated much of the area for shorebird use. Therefore, variability in water level and habitat features will result in variable shorebird use.
Conservation actions on the Hay-Zama Lakes wetland complex were bolstered in 1999 when the site was declared a Wildland Provincial Park that encompassed 48,600 ha of upland and wetland habitat (www.albertaparks.ca/pubsandmedia/HayZama_web.pdf Hay-Zama lakes website). The oil and gas reserves under the wetland complex are limited, and when the reserves have been removed, oil and gas production on the wetlands will be terminated (Hay-Zama Lakes website).
The number of shorebirds observed at Kimiwan Lake (>32,000) and Hay-Zama lakes (>20,000) are low in comparison to some of the larger wetlands such as the Quill Lakes and Chaplin/Old Wives/Reed Lakes complexes (>100,000), but they still form part of a network. There are several sites in Saskatchewan that can host substantial numbers during migration when conditions are favourable, such as Luck Lake (>40,000; spring 2001; Norton and Beyersbergen 2002, Beyersbergen 2009) and Manitou Lake (70,000; spring 1995; Beyersbergen in prep.).
The numbers of shorebirds at a site are used to qualify and rank its level for inclusion under specific conservation programs. The Hay-Zama complex was recognized as a Wetland of International Importance under RAMSAR (Wetland of International Significance) on 24 May 1982 (Alberta Wilderness Association - Management). It is listed in the Important Bird Areas of Canada as Globally Significant for waterfowl. The wetland complex was designated as the Hay Zama Lakes Wildland Park in May 1999.
Shorebird numbers would qualify Kimiwan Lake as a Regional level reserve in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN). The network has several sites listed in Prairie Canada, including Chaplin/Old Wives/Reed Lakes, the Quill Lakes and Last Mountain Lake in Saskatchewan and Beaverhill Lake in Alberta. Other WHSRN sites in Canada include the Bay of Fundy, bordering Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and the Fraser River Estuary in British Columbia.
Rotary-winged aircraft for the Hay-Zama Lakes survey were chartered from Delta Helicopters Ltd in Rainbow Lake. Field personnel conducting the ground surveys were Trisha Lang and Bev Gingras of the Canadian Wildlife Service. Graphic images were produced by Gillian Turney of the Canadian Wildlife Service. Wendy Calvert and Mark Wayland of the Canadian Wildlife Service provided valuable comments to this report, and Juliana Davis and Alyssa Wesselson assisted with editing the manuscript.
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Morrison, R. I. G., R. W. Butler, G. W. Beyersbergen, H. L. Dickson, A. Bourget, P. W. Hicklin, J. P. Goossen, R. K. Ross, and C. L. Gratto-Trevor. 1995. Potential Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network Sites for Shorebirds in Canada: Second Edition 1995. Canadian Wildlife Service Technical Report Series Number 227, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario. 104 pp.
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Pollard, J. B., K. D. Rempel and D. A. Young. 1990. Waterfowl migration in relation to Oil Production activities, Hay-Zama Lakes, Alberta: Fall 1990 monitoring study. Unpublished report Environmental Management Associates, Calgary, Alberta.
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Wright, K. D. 2000. Hay-Zama Lakes Complex Wildlife Monitoring, 2000. Alberta Conservation Association report for the Hay-Zama Committee, Peace River, Alberta, 14 + v pp.
|Common Name||Scientific Name||Alpha-code||Size Category|
|Black-bellied Plover||Pluvialis squatarola||BBPL||Medium|
|American Golden Plover||Pluvialis dominica||AGPL||Medium|
|Semipalmated Plover||Charadrius semipalmatus||SEPL||Small|
|American Avocet||Recurvirostra americana||AMAV||Large|
|Lesser Yellowlegs||Tringa flavipes||LEYE||Medium|
|Solitary Sandpiper||Tringa solitaria||SOSA||Small|
|Spotted Sandpiper||Actitis macularia||SPSA||Small|
|Hudsonian Godwit||Limosa haemastica||HUGO||Large|
|Marbled Godwit||Limosa fedoa||MAGO||Large|
|Red Knot||Calidris canutus||REKN||Medium|
|Pectoral Sandpiper||Calidris melanotos||PESA||Medium|
|White-rumped Sandpiper||Calidris fuscicollis||WRSA||Small|
|Baird’s Sandpiper||Calidris bairdii||BASA||Small|
|Semipalmated Sandpiper||Calidris pusilla||SESA||Small|
|Least Sandpiper||Calidris minutilla||LESA||Small|
|Stilt Sandpiper||Calidris himantopus||STSA||Medium|
|Wilson’s Snipe||Gallinago delicata||WISN||Medium|
|Wilson’s Phalarope||Phalaropus tricolor||WIPH||Medium|
|Red-necked Phalarope||Phalaropus lobatus||RNPH||Small|
|Dowitcher spp.||Limnodromus spp.||DOWI||Medium|
|Yellowlegs spp.||Tringa spp.||YELL||Medium|
|Reed Grass||Phragmites spp.|
|Cattail spp.||Typha spp.|
|Segment Number||Time 2400||Species||Number of Birds|
- Footnote 1
Translator's note: the English word slough is made in this report the term basin.
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