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ARCHIVED - Part II: Canada's National Action Plan on Unintentionally Produced Persistent Organic Pollutants (NAP)
5. Strategies to Reduce Releases
Management of unintentionally produced POPs in Canada has focussed largely on releases of dioxins and furans. The 1990 CEPA assessment report on PCDD/PCDF1, together with the 1999 Inventory of Releases: PCDD/PCDF (see Section 3 - Pollutant Releases) have assisted in identifying priority sources for the development and implementation of release reduction measures in Canada.
The 1999 Strategic Implementation Framework for International Commitments on Hazardous Air Pollutants prepared by the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee (NAICC) for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME ) notes that "reductions in hexachlorobenzene are expected to parallel reductions in dioxin and furan emissions". Less is known about the formation and release of unintentionally produced PCB; however, it is anticipated that measures to address releases of dioxins/furans will also contribute to the management of unintentionally produced PCB.
A mix of management tools including regulatory and voluntary measures as well as information and educational materials are used in developing the approach most suitable for a specific substance, sector or activity.
Information on sector-specific actions and approaches is presented in the following sections, and is tabulated in Appendix A to the NAP.
5.1 Early Actions for Pulp Mill Wastewater
In 1992, the CEPA Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans Regulations were adopted, prohibiting the release of dioxins/furans in measurable amounts. In addition, controls were placed on precursor compounds in defoamers used in the pulp and paper manufacturing process through the Pulp and Paper Mill Defoamer and Wood Chip Regulations, also adopted in 1992.
As a result of the CEPA Pulp and Paper Regulations and complementary provincial regulatory initiatives, dioxins and furans releases to the aquatic environment were reduced by more than 99 percent, thereby achieving the goal of virtual elimination. Releases decreased from about 450 grams ITEQ in 1988 to about 3 grams ITEQ by 1997. This outcome was attributed to the strict standards required (below the level of quantification) for dioxins/furans, which encouraged the industry to switch to an elemental chlorine-free bleaching technology and to substitute products that contained the precursor compounds.
5.2 Canada-wide Standards (CWS)
5.2.1 Canada-wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization
In 1998, the CCME , with the exception of Québec, signed the Canada-wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization. The objectives of the Accord are to enhance environmental protection, promote sustainable development, and achieve greater effectiveness, efficiency, accountability, predictability and clarity of environmental management. Through the Accord, governments agree that their environmental management activities will reflect:
- The polluter pays principle;
- The precautionary principle;
- Pollution prevention as the preferred approach to environmental protection;
- Environmental measures that are performance-based, results-oriented and science-based; and
- Other considerations, including open, transparent and accountable public consultation with respect for jurisdictional authority and consensus decision-making.
Periodic review of this Accord by Ministers is included in the terms of agreement.
5.2.2 Canada-wide Environmental Standards Sub-Agreement
Under the Harmonization Accord, CCME Ministers, except Québec, signed the Canada-wide Environmental Standards Sub-Agreement, which sets out principles for governments to jointly agree on priorities, develop standards, and prepare workplans to achieve those standards. Priority substances for development of CWS have included mercury, dioxins and furans, benzene, particulate matter (PM) and ground level ozone, and petroleum hydrocarbons (in soil). The objective of the CWS process is to provide a high level of environmental quality and consistency in environmental management across the country.
The Province of Quebec, while not a signatory to the Canada-wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization or Canada-wide Environmental Standards Sub-Agreement, has undertaken analogous efforts on environmental standards as those covered by the agreement, and has also developed working inter-jurisdictional arrangements on issues such as monitoring and reporting.
5.2.3 Canada-Wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans Emissions from Priority Sectors
Canada-wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans were developed with a focus on anthropogenic sources releasing dioxins/furans to the atmosphere. Six priority sectors, varying from regional to national in scope, accounting for about 80% of national emissions in the 1999 inventory were identified as priorities for early action. These included:
- waste incineration (municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, sewage sludge and medical waste);
- the burning of salt laden wood in coastal pulp and paper boilers in British Columbia;
- residential wood combustion;
- iron sintering;
- electric arc furnace steel manufacturing; and
- conical municipal waste combustion in Newfoundland.
CWS for Dioxins and Furans have been endorsed for five of the identified priority sectors, and these are outlined below. The sixth sector, residential wood combustion, is being dealt with through other initiatives which are described later.
Development of the CWS took into consideration environmental benefits, available technologies, socio-economic impacts, opportunities for pollution prevention, and collateral benefits from reductions in other pollutants.
Each of the above noted CWS include implementation considerations such as timelines for achievement, frequency of emission testing, and public reporting on progress. With the exception of conical municipal waste combustion, numeric standards have been established as steps toward the ultimate elimination of dioxins/furans releases. Each jurisdiction is responsible for detailing the means of ensuring achievement of the CWS in a manner consistent with the typical or desired programs for the affected facility/sector.
Table 5-1 shows the estimated percent contribution from the five priority sectors to the total Canadian 1999 dioxins/furans estimated releases to the atmosphere. The final column shows dates of CCME actions on the Dioxins and Furans CWS.
|Source||1999 Emission Estimate (grams ITEQ)||Percent Contribution to Total Emissions in 1999||Status of CCME Canada-Wide Standard for Dioxins and Furans|
|Conical municipal waste combustion||44||22%||CCME endorsed the CWSin November, 2003|
|Waste incineration (municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, sewage sludge, and medical waste)||41||20%||CCME endorsed the CWSin May, 2001|
|Steel manufacturing electric arc furnaces||11||6%||CCME endorsed the CWSin March, 2003|
|Iron sintering plants||6||3%||CCME endorsed the CWSin March, 2003|
|Pulp mill boilers burning salt laden wood||5||3%||CCME endorsed the CWSin May, 2001|
Source: Environment Canada
(1) Total value is rounded.
CCME = Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
CWS = Canada-wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans
The CWSpriority sectors and the status of their implementation are summarized below. In addition to the standards themselves, Pollution Prevention Strategies have been developed for waste incineration, the burning of salt-laden wood in pulp boilers, iron sintering, and steel manufacturing electric arc furnaces. The CWS Pollution Prevention Strategies present tools or advice for jurisdictions to consider, and it is up to each jurisdiction to decide how to use them, in whole or in part.
184.108.40.206 Conical Municipal Waste Combustion
Unique to the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the burning of municipal waste in conical waste combustors resulted in an estimated release of about 44.0 gram ITEQ in 1999.
The government of Newfoundland and Labrador has historically approved the construction and use of conical waste combustors in recognition of the rugged topography, scarcity of overburden, and the isolated nature of many of its communities. Conical waste combustors were approved for use only where alternative methods of waste disposal were not feasible. While modern municipal waste incinerators employ sophisticated and effective emission controls, conical waste combustors have only screens to retain some of the larger particulate matter.
Due to the design of conical waste combustors, emission controls are not a feasible option for reducing releases of dioxins and furans from this source. Therefore, this standard proposes to phase out the operation of conical waste combustors in Newfoundland and Labrador, and prevent the operation of new conical waste combustors anywhere in Canada.2
The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador has indicated it is committed to phasing out existing conical waste combustors within the Province by 2008. The goals of the waste management strategy include waste diversion, large scale composting facilities and province-wide modern waste management, which will ensure reduced dioxins and furans emissions. Any new incinerators will comply with the CWS for Mercury Emissions and the CWS for Dioxins and Furans from incinerators.
New Air Pollution Control Regulations have recently been enacted in Newfoundland and Labrador which define Ambient Air Quality Standards for Dioxins and Furans, and also limit in-stack concentrations of dioxins/furans for new incineration or pyrometric equipment, to 80 pg ITEQ/m3 at reference conditions.
220.127.116.11 Waste Incineration
Releases of dioxins/furans to the atmosphere from waste incinerators in 1999 were estimated at 41 grams ITEQ.
The standard applies to four categories of incineration: municipal solid waste; hazardous waste; sewage sludge; and medical waste.
For new or expanding facilities of any size, pollution prevention techniques, such as a waste diversion program, and best available control techniques are to be applied, to achieve a maximum concentration in the exhaust gases of 80 picograms (pg) ITEQ/m3 at reference conditions.
For existing facilities, application of best available pollution prevention and control techniques, to achieve a maximum concentration at reference conditions3 in the exhaust gases from the facility as follows:
- Municipal waste incineration
> 26 Tonnes/year: 80 pgITEQ/m3 by 2006
< 26 Tonnes/year: 80 pgITEQ/m3 by 2006
- Medical waste incineration
> 26 Tonnes/year: 80 pgITEQ/m3 by 2006
< 26 Tonnes/year: 80 pgITEQ/m3 by 2006
- Hazardous waste incineration: 80 pg ITEQ/m3 by 2006
- Sewage sludge incineration: 100 pg ITEQ/m3 by 2005
Jurisdictions with existing facilities that do not meet the CWS targets will prepare implementation plans. Those that do not have existing facilities will apply the standard for new facilities in conjunction with their permitting processes if proposals are received in the future. Those jurisdictions in which all facilities meet or surpass the standard will work to ensure that facilities remain in compliance. Many jurisdictions have combined their incineration implementation plans for dioxins/furans with those for mercury.
Implementation plans are available for Yukon, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Canada for facilities owned and operated by the federal government.
In addition to the continuing efforts of waste incinerator operators to destroy or capture emissions of dioxins and furans, emphasis is placed on identifying and implementing opportunities to prevent the creation of dioxins and furans as well as emissions of other air pollutants and ash quality generally.
18.104.22.168 Steel Manufacturing Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF)
In 1999, dioxins/furans releases to air from steel manufacturing electric arc furnaces (EAF) were estimated to be 11 grams ITEQ.
For new and modified furnaces, dioxin/furan emissions shall be less than 100 pg ITEQ/m3 at reference conditions 4.
For existing furnaces a two-phase approach established emission limits of 150 pg ITEQ/m3 at reference conditions to be achieved by 2006, and less than 100 pg ITEQ/m3 at reference conditions by 2010.
The preceding standards are based on research of dioxins/furans minimization techniques including pollution prevention (e.g., minimizing oil in steel scrap), BAT (e.g., more efficient particulate air pollution control devices) and BEP (e.g., process control and optimization) that can be applied to this source.
Jurisdictions with existing facilities that do not meet the CWS targets will prepare implementation plans. Those that do not have existing facilities will apply the standard for new facilities in conjunction with their permitting processes if proposals are received in the future. Those jurisdictions in which all facilities meet or surpass the standard will work to ensure that facilities remain in compliance.
The Provinces of Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan have developed implementation plans.
22.214.171.124 Iron Sintering Plants
In 1999, air emissions were estimated to be 6 grams ITEQ of dioxins/furans. Currently, only one iron sintering facility remains operating, located in Ontario. As a result of plant closures, atmospheric releases decreased significantly from an estimated 25 grams ITEQ in 1990.
For new or expanding iron sintering plants, dioxins/furans stack limits are less than 200 pgITEQ/m3, and as a result of achieving this limit, total particulate emissions should correspond to a level of less than 20 mg/m3 for new facilities constructed or existing facilities expanding their production capacity after March 2003.
For existing furnaces a three-phase approach established emission limits of less than 1350 pgITEQ/m3 to be achieved by 2002, less than 500 pgITEQ/m3 by 2005, and less than 200 pg ITEQ/m3 by 2010 (at reference conditions5).
Ontario has the only existing iron sintering plant in Canada. Other jurisdictions will apply the standard for new facilities with their permitting processes if proposals are received in the future.
In accordance with the Province of Ontario's implementation plan for this standard, the Certificate of Approval, which is a legal instrument, for the single iron sintering facility in Canada was amended in July, 2002. The Certificate of Approval includes the Phase 1 limit and plans for the implementation of Phases 2 and 3.
126.96.36.199 Coastal Pulp and Paper Boilers Burning Salt Laden Wood
Except for one facility in New Brunswick, these facilities are all located in British Columbia. In 1999, emissions were estimated to be 5 grams ITEQ of dioxins/furans. As a result of mill closures and voluntary industry initiatives that have reduced atmospheric releases, the current estimate represents a 50% reduction from 1990 releases estimated to be 10 grams ITEQ.
The dioxins/furans emission limit is less than 100 pg ITEQ /m3 for new boilers constructed after May 2001 and less than 500 pg ITEQ /m3 for all existing boilers by 2006.
These standards are based on a mix of techniques including pollution prevention (e.g., switching to salt-free wood waste), BAT (e.g., installing more efficient particulate emission control devices) and BEP (e.g., washing salt laden wood waste) measures.
British Columbia and New Brunswick will implement this CWS through facility operating permits.
Other jurisdictions will apply the standard for new facilities in conjunction with their permitting processes if proposals are received in the future.
Recognizing the ultimate objective of virtual elimination as set out in CEPA 1999, pulp and paper mill operators with boilers burning salt-laden wood will voluntarily pursue further reductions in emissions during the period of the standard.
5.3 Emerging Sources
5.3.1 On-site residential waste combustion
Emissions of dioxins/furans from on-site residential waste combustion have been estimated at 20 to 40 grams ITEQ/year.
Reducing emissions from this area source presents a special challenge, as the development of emission concentration targets is impractical and not the most effective approach. Three elements have been identified that influence a person's decision to burn their wastes on-site or manage them in a more appropriate manner: education, infrastructure, and enforcement. The relative mix of elements will differ from locality to locality, but all three elements are key for effective implementation of programs/strategies to reduce the open burning of household and solid waste.
On-site residential waste combustion is typically practiced in rural areas and small towns of Canada, most often using domestic incinerators, such as burn barrels, and backyard fire pits. In many Canadian jurisdictions, a regulatory approach to either prohibit open burning, including backyard burning of household waste, or permit it only under pre-approved conditions has been adopted. Legislation has been used at both the provincial and municipal levels. Nova Scotia has included a ban on open burning in their Solid Waste Resource Management Regulations under the Environment Act. British Columbia's provincial government provides municipalities with a model municipal by-law to regulate residential backyard burning. An outline of existing legislative and regulatory provincial and territorial initiatives is provided in Annex C to the NAP.
Public education and awareness are used widely both domestically and internationally to curb backyard burning, even in jurisdictions that have regulations in place. British Columbia has information on health impacts from backyard burning on its website. Backyard burning was identified as a significant issue in the Great Lakes area and has been taken on by Canadian provinces and U.S. states surrounding the lakes through the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (GLBTS).
Additional measures to those described above will be taken by jurisdictions as necessary.
5.3.2 Open Burning at Landfills
Emissions of dioxins/furans from open burning at landfills have been estimated at 13 to 24 grams ITEQ/year.
Most provincial and territorial jurisdictions have regulations in place to: prohibit the burning of municipal solid waste (MSW); control the type of waste burned; and/or set the conditions that must be met in order to burn. The following table provides a summary of key information on regulations and other measures related to the practice of burning waste at landfills for each jurisdiction.
|Alberta||Burning of municipal solid waste is not permitted. The burning of certain quantities of materials from industries such as, pulp and paper and forestry, is permitted under the guidelines of the Substance Release Regulation. Burning of these materials is not permitted within the boundaries of a city, town or village. Burning of these materials is permitted outside of the boundaries of a city, town or village if certain safety issues such as the construction of a fire break are met.|
|British Columbia||Burning is not permitted for typical domestic garbage, sawdust and bark. Controlled burning of wood residue such as stumps, brush and untreated wood may be approved under certain provisions. Under the Waste Management Act, a regional district may make bylaws regulating, prohibiting or respecting the burning of any class or quantity of municipal solid waste or recyclable materials, the Cariboo region, Central Coast region and East Kootenay region permit the burning of MSW.|
|Manitoba||Opening burning of mixed municipal solid waste is prohibited. Burning of materials such as wood and paper is permitted.|
|New Brunswick||The province regulates waste under the Clean Water Act, Clean Environment Act and Clean Air Act. The province permits burning of wood or wood products and recreational fires without a permit. The province strictly prohibits the burning of all domestic waste. This policy was put into effect on November 1, 2002.|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||Opening burning is a concern in the province. In the April 2002 Waste Management Strategy, the province proposed to eliminate open burning at disposal sites by 2005. The report recognizes the difficulty with this elimination in isolated communities.|
|Northwest Territories||Under guidelines set out by the NWT Department of Municipal and Community Affairs in February 2003, the open burning of municipal solid waste is not acceptable. The burning of clean wood and paper is allowed.|
|Nova Scotia||On April 1, 1996, open burning of municipal solid waste was completely banned in Nova Scotia.|
|Nunavut||Nunavut is currently in the process of developing waste legislation.|
|Ontario||Only the burning of clean wood and brush is permitted.|
|Prince Edward Island||No burning is permitted at the landfill site in PEI.|
|Québec||Open burning practice is allowed in in-trench disposal sites. These sites serve municipalities with <2000 inhabitants located >100km from a landfill. Opening burning is the general practice in the North. Disposal in the North occurs in open dumps.|
|Saskatchewan||No burning is permitted at the waste disposal ground except for clean wood and lumber and only when a permit or letter is received from Saskatchewan Environment.|
|Yukon||Burning is permitted under the Solid Waste Regulations of the Environment Act. It must be conducted in accordance with the Air Emissions Regulations, which regulate which materials can and cannot be burned and require permits for the open burning of more than 5kg of solid waste per day. In addition, the Regulations stipulate that burning may only be conducted in appropriate meteorological conditions.|
(Source: Earth Tech Canada Inc., Dioxins and Furans Emissions from Open Burning of Municipal Solid Waste in Canada at Landfill Facilities, March 2004)
Additional measures will be taken by jurisdictions as necessary.
5.4 Approaches for Other Identified Source Categories
5.4.1 Diesel Fuel Combustion
Diesel fuel combustion was estimated to release 9 g ITEQ of dioxins/furans to the atmosphere in 1999.
The Canadian government finalized the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulations in 2002. Low sulphur diesel fuel is required to enable the efficient operation of advanced exhaust emission control technologies needed to comply with new heavy-duty diesel vehicle emission standards that will come into effect for the 2007 model year. Correlations between emissions of dioxins/furans and either lower sulphur fuel or the new emission control technologies that will be needed to comply with the upcoming new emissions standards for diesel powered vehicles are unknown. However, the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulations, combined with the new on-road vehicle emission standards, will reduce sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) emissions for a new heavy-duty diesel engine by about 95, 95, 89 and 90 percent respectively.
The Canadian government also proposed regulations in 2004 that will address sulphur in off-road diesel fuel. These proposed Regulations Amending the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulations will allow new off-road diesel engines to meet emission standards comparable to those of on-road vehicles with advanced emission-control equipment when such technology is introduced to off-road engines.
5.4.2 Agricultural/Residential Fuel Combustion
According to the Inventory of Releases: PCDD/PCDF, this source sector (note - combustion of fuel other than wood) released about 7 g ITEQ of dioxins/furans to the atmosphere in 1999. There is uncertainty as to the accuracy of the value of the emission estimate from this source. Better characterization of this source is needed before a determination can be made as to appropriate measures to reduce releases from this source category.
5.4.3 Electric Power Generation
Electric power generation (EPG) was estimated to release 5 g ITEQ of dioxins/furans in 1999. Available test data indicate dioxins/furans emission concentrations at EPG facilities are below 80 pg/m3, which, to date, is the lowest emission limit established in a Canadian emission standard based on available technology and feasibility. No measures are planned with respect to emissions of dioxins/furans at this time.
However, guidelines for new thermal electricity generating facilities were recently published under CEPA 1999. The "New Source Emission Guidelines for Thermal Electricity Generation" set limits for releases of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter discharged to the ambient air. The appropriate regulatory authorities are encouraged to adopt the Guidelines as practical baseline standards for new fossil-fuel fired steam generating units within their jurisdiction.
5.4.4 Primary Magnesium Production
In 2002 there were three primary magnesium producers in Canada, releasing approximately 3.8 grams ITEQ of dioxins/furans to the atmosphere (2002 NPRI data). In 2003, the magnesium production facility responsible for the majority of sector dioxins/furans releases was closed due to poor market conditions. This facility was subject to provincial operating limits for discharges of dioxins/furans, PCB and HCB. The other two facilities released less than 0.5 grams ITEQ of dioxins/furans to the atmosphere in 2002.
In addition, the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations set a concentration limit for HCB in magnesium salt and magnesium sludge. Under these Regulations, HCB contamination cannot exceed 20 ppb.
5.4.5 Base Metals Smelting
Emissions from the base metals smelting sector were estimated to be 3 g ITEQ of dioxins/furans in 1999.
A Toxics Management Strategy has been developed by Environment Canada for the base metals smelting sector, to address substances released by the sector that were found to be toxic under CEPA, including dioxins and furans. The Strategy calls for Pollution Prevention Plans under section 56 of CEPA 1999 in conjunction with an Environmental Code of Practice under section 54 as the preferred measures to address releases from the sector.
On September 25, 2004, a Proposed Notice Requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Prevention Plans for Releases from Base Metals Smelters was published in the Canada Gazette, Part I for a 60 day public review period. An associated Environmental Code of Practice for Base Metals Smelters and Refineries, Proposed First Edition, June 2004, was also made available at that time.
The Proposed Notice contains, as a factor to consider, a site-specific air release limit target for dioxins/furans.
The draft Environmental Code of Practice contains recommended emission guidelines for dioxins and furans from these facilities. For existing facilities, the proposed guideline is less than 100 pg ITEQ/m3 at reference operating conditions. For new facilities, the proposed guideline is less than 32 pg ITEQ/m3 at reference operating conditions.
Both instruments will be published under CEPA 1999 before March 2006.
5.4.6 Residential Wood Combustion
Residential wood combustion was estimated to release 3 grams ITEQ of dioxins/furans to air in 1999.
The use of woodstoves is the fourth most common type of home heating in Canada. Combustion of wood in home appliances releases various pollutants of concern including dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and particulate matter. Advanced technology woodstoves dramatically reduce emissions of particulate matter, VOC, PAHsand other air pollutants that are human health concerns. Emission reductions from residential wood combustion are being pursued nationally through Joint Initial Actions under the Canada-wide Standards (CWS) for Particulate Matter (PM) and Ground-level Ozone, as well as through other regional change-out and education programs.
Activities under the Joint Initial Action of the PM/Ozone CWS are coordinated through the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Working Group on Residential Wood Combustion, and are focussed on an update of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards for new wood-burning appliances; development of a national regulation for new, clean burning residential wood heating appliances; national public education programs; and an assessment of the option of a national wood stove upgrade or change-out program.
The CSA standard has been updated and published as standard CSA B415.1-00 (Performance Testing of Solid-Fuel-Burning Heating Appliances), which specifies performance testing requirements and maximum emission rates.
Natural Resources Canada, in partnership with Health Canada and Environment Canada, is leading "Burn-it-Smart!", a national education campaign to promote safer, cleaner and more efficient wood burning practices that operated in the 2001-02 and 2002-03 heating seasons. Information on wood burning practices as well as promotional materials are available on the website. In addition many provinces, territories, and several non-government organizations have conducted education and change-out programs.
The Residential Wood Combustion Working Group has decided not to recommend a national wood stove change-out program at this time. Further information is required to justify the investments necessary for a national change-out program and to conclude that this would be a cost-effective approach to dealing with emissions from residential wood combustion. British Colombia (B.C.) is the most advanced Canadian province with a regulation in place since 1996, a long lasting education campaign and regional wood stove change out program. The Working Group has recommended that, based on B.C.'s experience with their regional change-out campaigns, the province develop a pilot change-out campaign. (British-Columbia has indicated that it will be undertaking a province-wide change-out program.) Such a project will be useful to provide additional information to assess change-out programs.
Newfoundland has prepared a regulation on the sale of wood stove that will be put in place in 2008.
Effort will be dedicated towards an education program for Canadians to increase the level of understanding of the impact of residential wood combustion on ambient air quality, and of the means to reduce emissions from residential wood combustion, which include use of EPA wood stoves as well as other fuel and other heating systems.
The Working Group is focusing its efforts on developing a model regulation and certification process, as well as model municipal by-laws. A change-out template for regional change-out for municipal and environmental organizations' use, may also be developed.
5.4.7 Beehive Burners
Beehive burners are utilized primarily by the western forest industry as a means of disposing of clean wood wastes. The design and operating characteristics of beehive burners make testing for dioxins and furans very difficult. Despite the lack of specific knowledge, beehive burners are recognized as emitters of dioxins and furans. Releases to the atmosphere are based on estimates of emission factors and volumes of wood waste disposed of in this manner. Emissions for 1999 were estimated at 3 g ITEQ of dioxins/furans.
Beehive burners have not been allowed in New Brunswick since 1990. If alternate uses for residual wood waste cannot be found, the material is currently landfilled.
British Columbia and Alberta implemented programs in the mid 1990's to phase out beehive/conical burners and unmodified silo burners. Alberta developed the "Wood Waste Incineration Policy" in late 1995 while British Columbia promulgated their Wood Residue Burner and Incineration Regulation on January 1, 1996.
The phasing out of beehive burners in B.C. and Alberta over the next few years will reduce the amount of wood waste being burned in this type of process by 1,425,000 tonnes. Manitoba is making progress on its goal of phasing out its three beehive burners by 2005, with the largest one having already been replaced by an engineered incinerator.
Though Quebec has no specific plans to phase out these units, new air quality regulations requiring particulate matter emissions of less than 100 mg/m3 will, in all likelihood, force the remaining units to be shutdown. No other types of wood waste incinerators are used in Quebec. Unutilized wood waste is landfilled.
5.4.8 Cement Kilns
Available test data from this sector indicate that releases of dioxins/furans from cement kilns are below 80 pg ITEQ/m3, with one exception. To date, 80 pgITEQ/m3 is the lowest emission limit established in a Canadian emission standard based on available technology and feasibility.
In 1996, CCME published National Guidelines for the Use of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes as Supplementary Fuels in Cement Kilns6 , with a recommended dioxins/furans emission limit of 0.5 ng ITEQ/m3 for cement kilns built prior to 1995, and a limit of 0.1 ng ITEQ/m3 for new plants built after Jan. 1, 1995 or for existing plants undergoing major modifications.
Environment Canada is planning the development of a comprehensive Environmental Code of Practice for Cement Manufacturing Facilities, which would include dioxins/furans emission limits and/or operating practices taking into account developments with respect to BAT and BEP.
5.4.9 Wood Preservation
The wood preservation industry treats wood with heavy-duty waterborne and oil-borne preservatives for both industrial and residential market applications. Wood preservation activities include the chemical preservative manufacturers, the wood treating plants, and the users of both industrial and consumer products.
Only plants using pentachlorophenol (PCP), and therefore only wood treated by this chemical, release dioxins/furans. Since PCP is not manufactured in Canada, this is not a source of releases. Canada imports most of the PCP used by the industry from the U.S.
The US EPA regulates the dioxins/furans content of end-use pesticide products manufactured in the U.S., including PCP. In Canada, the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) is responsible for regulating the use of PCP as a pesticide and preservative. Use of PCP is now almost exclusively specified for treatment of utility poles and cross arms. The PMRA has been working with registrants toward the virtual elimination of micro-contaminants, such as dioxins/furans in pesticides.
Air emissions of dioxins and furans from wood preservation plants using PCP were estimated to be 2 grams ITEQ in 1999, and soil releases of dioxins/furans from wood preservative plants using PCP were estimated to be 2 gram ITEQ in 1999. Dioxins/furans air emissions from in-service utility poles treated with PCP were estimated to be 2 grams ITEQ in 1999 and soil releases from in-service utility poles treated with PCP were estimated to be 9 grams ITEQ of dioxins/furans in 1999.
Releases of dioxins and furans from the sector are being addressed through an initiative focussed on the lifecycle management of toxic substances and implementation of risk-reduction options within the wood preservation sector. This includes implementation of Best Management Practices for preservative plants, as documented in Recommendations for the Design and Operation of Wood Preservation Facilities (1999). Provinces are using this document as a basis for licenses and permits in addition to addressing site-specific issues.
In addition, an Industrial Treated Wood Users Guidance Document is in preparation. This document will outline proper handling, storage, transportation, use and reuse/recycling of treated wood. Included in this process is the development of a national waste management strategy for waste treated wood. As part of this strategy, industrial treated wood users have committed as a group to reduce the volume of material going to landfill by 20 percent by the end of 2005, based on baseline data from 1990.
5.5 Summary of Strategies
The following tables summarize the strategies and approaches described above in relation to requirements under Article 5 of the Stockholm Convention for Annex C, Part II source categories (see Table 5-3), as well as those Annex C, Part III source categories identified through this action plan (see Table 5-4). The final table (Table 5-5) provides available information on other Annex C, Part III source categories not previously addressed.
|Stockholm Convention Annex C, Part II Source Categories||Associated Canadian Sector(s)||Description of Measures|
|(a) Waste incinerators, including co-incinerators of municipal, hazardous or medical waste or of sewage sludge;||Waste incineration (municipal waste, hazardous waste, medical waste, and sewage sludge)|
Incineration Canada-wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans
|Conical municipal waste combustion|
Conical Waste Combustion of Municipal Waste Canada-wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans
|(b) Cement kilns firing hazardous waste;||Cement production (currently no knowledge of firing of hazardous waste in Canada)|
CCME National Guidelines for the Use of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes as Supplementary Fuels in Cement Kilns (1996)
Note: planned development of Environmental Code of Practice with dioxins/furans emission limits for new and existing kilns, and publication of Code under CEPA 1999.
|(c) Production of pulp using elemental chlorine or chemicals generating elemental chlorine for bleaching;||Pulp and paper production|
1992 CEPA Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans Regulations“ prohibits the release of dioxins/furans in measurable amounts (i.e., must be below the Level of Quantification).
1992 CEPA Pulp and Paper Mill Defoamer and Wood Chip Regulations
|(d) The following thermal processes in the metallurgical industry:|
|(i) Secondary copper production;||Facilities are subject to provincial/territorial guidelines or requirements in a permit or order.|
|(ii) Sinter plants in the iron and steel industry;||Steel manufacturing sector|
Iron Sintering Plant Canada-wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans
|(iii) Secondary aluminium production;||Facilities are subject to provincial/territorial guidelines or requirements in a permit or order.|
(iv) Secondary zinc production.
|Facilities are subject to provincial/territorial guidelines or requirements in a permit or order.|
|Stockholm Convention Annex C, Part III source categories||Associated Canadian Sector(s)||Description of Measures|
|(a) Open burning of waste, including burning of landfill sites;|
Uncontrolled combustion of waste:
|(b) Thermal processes in the metallurgical industry not mentioned in Part II;||Steel manufacturing electric arc furnaces (EAFs)|
Steel Manufacturing EAF Canada-wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans
|Base metals smelting||Publication of Environmental Code of Practice for Base Metals Smelters and Refineries, with dioxins/furans emission limits for new and existing facilities, under CEPA 1999 by March 2006.|
|(c) Residential combustion sources;||Residential Wood Combustion|
Multi-pollutant approach “ targeting improved burning practices, movement toward U.S. EPA or equivalent certified wood stoves or alternate fuel source/technology and regulation.
|(d) Fossil fuel-fired utility and industrial boilers;||Thermal Electricity Generation|
No measures planned specific to dioxins/furans.
CEPA 1999 New Source Emission Guidelines for Thermal Electricity Generationfor releases of particulates, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
|(e) Firing installations for wood and other biomass fuels;||Coastal pulp and paper boilers|
Canada-wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans
|Wood Waste Beehive Burners||Planned phase-out within provinces of British-Columbia, Alberta, and Manitoba.|
|(f) Specific chemical production processes releasing unintentionally formed persistent organic pollutants, especially production of chlorophenols and chloranil;|
Wood Preservation Sector
Pentachlorophenol is not manufactured in Canada. Canadas Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) has developed a strategy for implementing the federal Toxic Substances Management Policy, and is working with pesticide registrants toward the virtual elimination of micro-contaminants (i.e., dioxins/furans) in pesticides.
Releases of dioxins/furans from the wood preservation sector (i.e., use of PCP as wood preservative, and PCP-treated wood) are being addressed through an initiative focussed on the lifecycle management and implementation of risk-reduction options, led by Environment Canada.
|Stockholm Convention Annex C, Part III source categories||Status in Canada|
This source category requires further characterization.
Crematoria facilities are subject to provincial/territorial guidelines or requirements in a permit or order.
|(h) Motor vehicles, particularly those burning leaded gasoline;|
Leaded fuel is not used in Canada for motor vehicles, with the exception of competition vehicles until January 1, 2008.
No measures planned specific to dioxins/furans. However, regulations in place for diesel fuel and gasoline to comply with new vehicle emission standards targeting pollutant reductions of SOx, NOx, VOC, and PM.
CEPA 1999 Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulations
CEPA 1999 Sulphur in Gasoline Regulations
|(i) Destruction of animal carcasses;|
This source category requires further characterization.
This activity is subject to provincial/territorial guidelines or requirements in a permit or order.
|(j) Textile and leather dyeing (with chloranil) and finishing (with alkaline extraction);||Chloranil is not currently manufactured in Canada. A Memorandum of Understanding Respecting the Import of Chloranil and Chloranil-derived Substances (CDS) has been entered into between Environment Canada and Canadian companies importing chloranil or dyes and pigments derived from chloranil into Canada. The MOU is designed to prevent the entry of dioxins/furans contaminated chloranil into Canada by requiring importers to discontinue the import of chloranil with a dioxins/furans concentration above 20 ppb ITEQ basis.|
|(k) Shredder plants for the treatment of end of life vehicles;||This source category requires further characterization.|
|(l) Smouldering of copper cables;|
This source category requires further characterization.
The province of Saskatchewan has released an Environmental Protection Bulletin on Copper Wire Recycling that identifies provincial regulatory requirements that may apply with respect to the processing of copper wire. It is the position of Saskatchewan Environment that removal of insulation from copper wire must only be done by physical means rather than by burning.
|(m) Waste oil refineries.||This source requires further characterization.|
1 Government of Canada, Canadian Environmental Protection Act, Priority Substances List Assessment Report No. 1, Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, DSS Cat. No., En40-215/1E, 1990.
2 Conical waste combustors were also a sector of concern in CCME 's process to develop CWS for mercury emissions. The phase-out strategy will also result in reduced mercury emissions from these combustors
3 Note gas reference conditions are 25°C, 101.3 kPa,11 percent oxygen, dry
4Note gas reference conditions are 25°C, 101.3 kPa, operating oxygen levels, dry.
5 Note gas reference conditions are 25°C, 101.3 kPa, operating oxygen levels, dry.
6 Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, National Guidelines for the Use of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes as Supplement Fuels in Cement Kilns, prepared by the Hazardous Waste Task Group, March 1996.
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