Risk Management Approach
Petroleum and Refinery Gases
Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers (CAS RN):
68307-99-3, 68476-26-6, 68476-49-3, 68477-69-0, 68477-71-4, 68477-72-5, 68477-73-6, 68477-75-8, 68477-76-9, 68477-77-0, 68477-86-1, 68477-87-2, 68477-93-0, 68477-97-4, 68478-00-2, 68478-01-3, 68478-05-7, 68478-25-1, 68478-29-5, 68478-32-0, 68478-34-2, 68512-91-4, 68513-16-6, 68513-17-7, 68513-18-8, 68514-31-8, 68514-36-3, 68527-16-2, 68602-83-5, 68602-84-6, 68606-27-9, 68607-11-4, 68814-67-5, 68911-58-0, 68918-99-0, 68919-02-8, 68919-04-0, 68919-08-4, 68919-10-8, 68952-79-4
(PDF Format - 226 KB)
Table of Contents
- Why We Need Action
- Current Uses and Industrial Sectors
- Presence in the Canadian Environment and Exposure Scenarios
- Overview of Existing Actions
- Proposed Objectives
- Proposed Risk Management
- Consultation Approach
- Next Steps / Proposed Timeline
This proposed risk management approach document builds on the previously released risk management scope document for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases and outlines the proposed control actions for these substances. Stakeholders are invited to submit comments on the content of this proposed risk management approach or provide other information that would help to inform decision making. Following this consultation period, the Government of Canada will initiate the development of the specific risk management instrument(s) and/or regulation(s) where necessary. Comments received on the proposed risk management approach will be taken into consideration in developing the instrument(s) and/or regulation(s). Consultation will also take place as instrument(s) and/or regulation(s) are developed.
Summary of Proposed Risk Management
The Government of Canada will consider the following action with respect to site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases:
- Develop a regulation under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) focusing on additional practices and technologies, or the improved implementation of existing requirements, for reducing fugitive emissions from petroleum facilities (such as refineries, upgraders, and natural gas processing facilities).
Note: This summary is an abridged list of the instruments and tools proposed to risk manage these substances. Refer to section 9.1 of this document for a complete explanation of risk management.
1.1 Categorization and the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) (Canada 1999) requires the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health (the Ministers) to categorize substances on the Domestic Substances List (DSL). Categorization involves identifying those substances on the DSL that, in accordance with the criteria at section 73 of the Act, a) are considered to be persistent (P) or bioaccumulative (B), based on the criteria set out in the Persistence and Bioaccumulation Regulations made under the Act(Canada 2000a), and "inherently toxic" (iT) to humans or other organisms, or b) may present, to individuals in Canada, the greatest potential for exposure (GPE). In addition, the Act requires the Ministers to conduct screening assessments of substances that meet the categorization criteria. The assessment further determines whether the substance meets one or more of the criteria set out in section 64 of the ActFootnote.
In December 2006, the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach (PSSA) identified approximately 160 petroleum substances through categorization which became high priorities for assessment due to their hazardous properties and their potential to pose risks to human health and the environment. These substances were included in the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach because they are related to the petroleum sector and are all combinations of petroleum hydrocarbons.
Information-gathering authority in section 71 of CEPA 1999 is being used under the PSSA to gather specific information where it is required. The information that is collected through the PSSA is used to make informed decisions and appropriately manage any risks that may be associated with these substances.
The 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases, listed below, are included in Stream 1 of the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach under the Chemicals Management Plan. The Ministers have conducted an assessment under section 74 of CEPA 1999 to assess whether these substances meet one or more of the criteria as set out in section 64 of CEPA 1999.
The 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases are:
|CAS RNFootnote[a]||Domestic Substances List (DSL) name|
|68307-99-3||tail gas (petroleum), catalytic polymerized naphtha fractionation stabilizer|
|68476-49-3||hydrocarbons, C2-C4, C3-rich|
|68477-69-0||gases (petroleum), butane splitter overhead|
|68477-71-4||gases (petroleum), catalytic cracked gas oil depropanizer bottom, C4-rich acid-free|
|68477-72-5||gases (petroleum), catalytic cracked naphtha debutanizer bottom, C3-C5-rich|
|68477-73-6||gases (petroleum), catalytic cracked naphtha depropanizer overhead, C3-rich acid-free|
|68477-75-8||gases (petroleum), catalytic cracker, C1-C5-rich|
|68477-76-9||gases (petroleum), catalytic polymerized naphtha stabilizer overhead, C2-C4-rich|
|68477-77-0||gases (petroleum), catalytic reformed naphtha stripper overhead|
|68477-86-1||gases (petroleum), deethanizer overhead|
|68477-87-2||gases (petroleum), deisobutanizer tower overhead|
|68477-93-0||gases (petroleum), gas concentration reabsorber distillation|
|68477-97-4||gases (petroleum), hydrogen-rich|
|68478-00-2||gases (petroleum), recycle, hydrogen-rich|
|68478-01-3||gases (petroleum), reformer make-up, hydrogen-rich|
|68478-05-7||gases (petroleum), thermal cracking distillation|
|68478-25-1||tail gas (petroleum), catalytic cracker refractionation absorber|
|68478-29-5||tail gas (petroleum), cracked distillate hydrotreater separator|
|68478-32-0||tail gas (petroleum), saturate gas plant mixed stream, C4-rich|
|68478-34-2||tail gas (petroleum), vacuum residue thermal cracker|
|68512-91-4||hydrocarbons, C3-C4-rich, petroleum distillates|
|68513-16-6||gases (petroleum), hydrocracking depropanizer off, hydrocarbon-rich|
|68513-17-7||gases (petroleum), light straight-run naphtha stabilizer off|
|68513-18-8||gases (petroleum), reformer effluent high-pressure flash drum off|
|68514-36-3||hydrocarbons, C1-C4, sweetened|
|68602-83-5||gases (petroleum), C1-C5, wet|
|68602-84-6||gases (petroleum), secondary absorber off, fluidized catalytic cracker overhead fractionater|
|68606-27-9||gases (petroleum), alkylation feed|
|68607-11-4||petroleum products, refinery gases|
|68814-67-5||gases (petroleum), refinery|
|68911-58-0||gases (petroleum), hydrotreated sour kerosine depentanizer stabilizer off|
|68918-99-0||gases (petroleum), crude oil fractionation off|
|68919-02-8||gases (petroleum), fluidized catalytic cracker fractionation off|
|68919-04-0||gases (petroleum), heavy distillate hydrotreater desulfurization stripper off|
|68919-08-4||gases (petroleum), preflash tower off, crude distillation|
|68919-10-8||gases (petroleum), straight-run stabilizer off|
|68952-79-4||tail gas (petroleum), catalytic hydrodesulfurized naphtha separator|
- Footnote 1
CAS RN = Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number
1.2 Final Screening Assessment Report Conclusion for Site-Restricted Petroleum and Refinery Gases
A Notice summarizing the scientific considerations of a final screening assessment report for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases was published by Environment Canada and Health Canada in the Canada Gazette, Part I, on June 1, 2013, under subsection 77(6) of CEPA 1999. The final screening assessment report concluded that site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases meet the criteria in paragraph 64(c) of CEPA 1999, as they are entering or may be entering the environment in a quantity or a concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health.
The final screening assessment report also concluded that the 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases do not meet the criteria in paragraphs 64(a) and (b) of CEPA 1999, as they are not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity or that constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends.
Based on the current available information, none of these CAS RNs contain components that meet the bioaccumulation criteria as defined in the Persistence and Bioaccumulation Regulations. However, many of the components of site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases do persist in the atmosphere based on the persistence criteria in the Regulations.
For further information on the final screening assessment report conclusion for the 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases, refer to the final screening assessment report (Canada 2013).
1.3 Proposed Measure
As a result of a screening assessment of a group of substances under section 74 of CEPA 1999, the group of substances may be found to meet the criteria under section 64 of CEPA 1999. The Ministers can propose to take no further action with respect to the substances, to add the substances to the Priority Substances List (PSL) for further assessment, or to recommend the addition of the substances to the List of Toxic Substances in Schedule 1 of the Act. Under certain circumstances, the Ministers must make a specific proposal to recommend the implementation of virtual elimination.
In the case of the site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases, the Ministers proposed to recommend the addition of the 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases to the List of Toxic Substances in Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999. As a result, the Ministers will develop a regulation or instrument respecting preventive or control actions to protect the health of Canadians and the environment from the potential effects of exposure to these substances.
The 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases are not subject to the virtual elimination provisions under CEPA 1999 and will be managed using a lifecycle approach, to prevent or minimize their release into the environment.
2.1 Substance Information
Petroleum and refinery gases are a category of saturated and unsaturated petroleum light hydrocarbons produced by natural gas processing, petroleum refining and upgrader facilities (API 2001a). The compositions of petroleum and refinery gases vary depending on the source of the crude oil, bitumen, or natural gas, as well as the process operating conditions and processing units involved (Speight 2007). The potential components of petroleum and refinery gases are presented in List 1.
List 1. Potential components present in petroleum and refinery gases (API 2001b)
- 2-Methylpropane (isobutane)
- 2-Methylpropene (isobutylene)
- 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene)
- Hydrogen sulphide
- Carbon dioxide
- Carbon monoxide
3. Why We Need Action
3.1 Characterization of Risk
A critical effect for characterization of risk to human health for petroleum and refinery gases was carcinogenicity, as another jurisdiction (European Union) has identified petroleum and refinery gases containing 1,3-butadiene at concentrations greater than 0.1% by weight as carcinogens. Additionally, 1,3-butadiene.Footnote has been identified by Health Canada and several international regulatory agencies as a carcinogen and was added to the List of Toxic Substances in Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999.
1,3-Butadiene was found to be a multi-site carcinogen in rodents, increasing the incidence of tumours at all concentrations tested. It also exhibits genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo and a plausible mode of action for induction of tumours involves direct interaction with genetic material. 1,3-Butadiene was selected as a high hazard gas component to characterize potential exposure to the general population as it is considered, based on available information, to be present in these 40 petroleum and refinery gases.
Both air dispersion modelling and calculations based on the application of emission factors indicate that unintentional releases of petroleum and refinery gases contribute to the overall 1,3-butadiene concentration in ambient air in the vicinity of refinery, upgrader and/or natural gas processing facilities. Consistent with refinery, upgrader and/or natural gas processing facilities being the primary point sources of emissions, the estimated 1,3-butadiene concentrations decline with increasing distance and are estimated to be comparable to or below Canadian average concentrations at distances of more than 500 m from the release source. Using the estimates of carcinogenic potency previously developed by the Government of Canada (Canada 2000a), together with the annual high end estimates of exposure derived from dispersion modelling of 1,3-butadiene as a high-hazard component of the petroleum and refinery gases, margins of exposure were derived for increasing distances from the release source.
At a distance of 200 m from the release source, and using the high end of the exposure range, the margin of exposure is 5300 while at 500 m from the release source exposure approximates the Canadian average annual ambient air concentration of 0.22 μg/m3, with a corresponding margin of exposure of 10 500. Although the magnitude of risk would vary with the cancer potency metrics selected (e.g., TC05; unit risks derived by US EPA and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality based on linear low-dose extrapolation models), use of a conservative cancer potency metric is considered appropriate given the uncertainties in the health effects database. The above-noted margin of exposure (5300) at 200 m from the release source for the high end of the exposure range is considered potentially inadequate to address uncertainties related to health effects and exposure for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases.
4. Current Uses and Industrial Sectors
Site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases are produced in three types of petroleum facilities: petroleum refineries (where crude oils are converted into finished petroleum products, such as gasoline, jet fuel or base oils for lubricants), upgraders (where oil-sand derived bitumen is converted into synthetic crude oil for further processing at a refinery), and natural gas processing facilities (where raw natural gas is processed into clean natural gas and other C2–C5 hydrocarbons). According to information submitted under section 71 of CEPA 1999, and other information, the site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases are not expected to be transported off petroleum facility sites. These substances are consumed on-site or are blended into substances leaving the site under different CAS RNs (many of which are also addressed under the CMP) (Environment Canada 2008).
5. Presence in the Canadian Environment and Exposure Scenarios
5.1 Releases to the Environment
Although these petroleum and refinery gases are considered site-restricted, it is recognized that there are potential unintentional releases (including fugitive releases) of these gases into the atmosphere from equipment seals (e.g., compressors and storage tanks), valves, piping, flanges, etc. In general, the common sources of fugitive releases from a petroleum facility are compressor seals, processing valves, flanges, pressure relief valve seals, storage tanks, loading operations, sample lines and open-ended lines (CCME 1993; CPPI 2005). Despite the fact that some measures and practices are in place to reduce the releases of petroleum substances within the facility, it has been recognized that fugitive releases of the petroleum and refinery gases into the atmosphere can occur due to their much higher volatility (lower boiling point) and higher mobility as compared to liquid substances (US EPA 1995; CPPI 2005; CAPP 2007).
5.2 Exposure Sources
The general physical and chemical properties of the petroleum and refinery gases indicate that when these gaseous substances are released, they will rapidly disperse in the environment in the vicinity of refinery, upgrader and/or natural gas processing facilities. Furthermore, when these gases are released into the air, the individual chemicals constituting the petroleum and refinery gases will separate and partition in accordance with their own physical-chemical properties (API 2009a). As such, inhalation would be the primary potential route of exposure and was therefore the focus of the exposure assessment.
6. Overview of Existing Actions
6.1 Existing Canadian Risk Management
While Canadian regulations exist which manage hydrocarbons generally, none specifically name any of these 40 petroleum and refinery gases. Provincial or territorial requirements typically exist to prevent or manage the unintentional releases of substances and streams within a petroleum facility through the use of permits. For example, provincial operational permits may reference the Environmental Code of Practice for Measurement and Control of Fugitive VOC Emissions and Equipment Leaks (CCME 1993). Additionally, existing provincial/territorial occupational health and safety legislation may specify measures to minimize occupational exposures to employees and some of these measures also serve to reduce general population exposures.
Non-regulatory measures (e.g., guidelines, best practices) are also in place at many petroleum sector facilities to reduce releases. Examples include the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP)'s Best Management Practice for Fugitive Emissions Management (CAPP 2007) and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) members' participation in the National Framework for Petroleum Refinery Emission Reductions (NFPRER) (CCME 2005).
6.2 Existing International Risk Management
In the United States, several regulations pertaining to refineries and natural gas processing facilities have been developed under National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program of the Clean Air Act. However, the 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases have not been assessed under the NESHAP program, which primarily deals with discrete substances.
In Europe, the Directive for Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) sets out guidelines to minimize pollution from various point sources, including petroleum refining (EU 2008). Operators of industrial installations conducting activities covered by Annex I of the IPPC Directive (including refineries) are required to obtain an environmental permit from the national authority in their country. A Best Available Techniques reference (BREF) document for the oil and gas refining sector was adopted by the European Commission in 2003, and addresses reducing VOC emissions, particularly fugitive emissions (EC IPTS 2003). In 2013, the Directive on Industrial Emissions (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) (EU 2010) replaced the IPPC Directive and the sectoral directives.
7.1 Alternative Chemicals or Substitutes
Site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases are produced in petroleum refineries, upgraders, and natural gas processing facilities. According to information submitted under section 71 of CEPA 1999, and other information, these substances are consumed on-site or are blended into substances leaving the site under different CAS RNs (many of which are also addressed under the CMP).
Given that the site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases are part of integrated processes for refining, upgrading, and natural gas processing, there are no feasible alternative substances or substitutes.
7.2 Alternative Technologies and/or Techniques
No alternative technologies or techniques were identified that would minimize or eliminate the use of the site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases. However, technologies or techniques for reducing releases of these substances exist. Examples include equipment selection such as leak-proof valves and fittings, as well as work practices such as leak detection and repair programs.
7.3 Socio-Economic Considerations
Socio-economic factors will be considered in the development of regulations, instrument(s) and/or tool(s) as identified in the Cabinet Directive on Streamlining Regulation (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat 2007a) and the guidance provided in the Treasury Board document Assessing, Selecting, and Implementing Instruments for Government Action (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat 2007b).
Socio-economic considerations for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases include:
- Site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases are produced in petroleum refineries, upgraders, and natural gas processing facilities. There are approximately 1200 such facilities in Canada.
- Site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases are not typically sold, nor are they known to be contained in manufactured products. As such, information on the costs of these substances is not available.
- Information on domestic or international trends in the use of these substances is not available.
7.4 Children's Exposure
The Government of Canada considered, where available, risk assessment information relevant to children's exposure to these substances. Based on the information available, it is proposed that no risk management actions to specifically protect children are required for these substances at this time.
8. Proposed Objectives
8.1 Human Health Objective
A human health objective is a quantitative or qualitative statement of what should be achieved to address human health concerns identified during a risk assessment.
The proposed human health objective for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases is to minimize human exposure to the greatest extent practicable.
8.2 Risk Management Objective
A risk management objective is a target expected to be achieved for a given substance by the implementation of risk management regulations, instrument(s) and/or tool(s).
The proposed risk management objective for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases is to further reduce fugitive emissions from petroleum refineries, upgraders, and natural gas processing facilities through the application of additional practices and technologies, or the improved implementation of existing requirements.
9. Proposed Risk Management
9.1 Proposed Risk Management Instrument
As required by the Government of Canada’s Cabinet Directive on Regulatory Management (Treasury Board of Canada 2012a) and criteria identified in the Treasury Board document entitled Assessing, Selecting, and Implementing Instruments for Government Action (Treasury Board of Canada 2007), the proposed risk management instrument was selected using a consistent approach, and took into consideration the information that was received through the Chemicals Management Plan and other information available at the time.
As well, the Government of Canada is moving forward with the implementation of a "One-for-One" Rule to control administrative burden on business, following the release of the Red Tape Reduction Commission's Recommendations Report (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat 2012b). This rule provides specific advice to departments and agencies on how to reduce unnecessary burdens on business. It also proposes that the Government make systemic changes to the way it regulates businesses while ensuring that the environment and the health and safety of Canadians are not compromised. Depending upon the risk management tool(s) selected for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases, the "One-for-One" Rule may apply.
In order to achieve the risk management objective and to work towards achieving the human health objective, the risk management being considered for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases is a regulation under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) focusing on additional practices and technologies, or the improved implementation of existing requirements, for reducing fugitive emissions from petroleum facilities (such as refineries, upgraders, and natural gas processing facilities). This action would involve consultation with implicated federal, provincial and other regulatory agencies.
It is envisioned that the regulation would be developed in concert with the Air Quality Management System (AQMS) process under the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) to develop Base-Level Industrial Emissions Requirements (BLIERs) to manage the risks related to fugitive emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (CCME 2012). This is in keeping with the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach’s objective of identifying synergies with other initiatives.
9.2 Implementation Plan
The proposed measure will be published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, by June 2015, as per the timelines legislated in CEPA 1999.
The Government of Canada is consulting with provinces, industry and other stakeholders to finalize the requirements for the reduction of VOC emissions under the BLIER process, and to develop a cost-effective implementation plan. The path forward may include adapting the current VOC requirements as necessary to address petroleum and refinery gases.
10. Consultation Approach
The risk management scope document for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases, which summarized the proposed risk management under consideration at that time, was published on January 15, 2011. Industry and other interested stakeholders were invited to submit comments on the risk management scope document during a 60-day comment period. Comments received on the risk management scope document were taken into consideration in the development of this proposed risk management approach document.
Consultation for the risk management approach document will involve publication on June 1, 2013 and a 60-day public comment period.
The primary stakeholders include:
- owners and operators of petroleum refineries, upgraders, and natural gas processing facilities;
- non-governmental organizations;
- provincial/territorial governments; and
- other federal departments.
11. Next Steps / Proposed Timeline
|Electronic consultation on the proposed risk management approach document||June 1, 2013 to July 31, 2013|
|Response to comments on the proposed risk management approach document||No later than the time of publication of the proposed instrument|
|Consultation on the draft instrument||December 2013 to June 2014|
|Publication of the proposed instrument||No later than June 2015|
|Formal public comment period on the proposed instrument||No later than June 2016|
|Publication of the final instrument||No later than December 2016|
Industry and other interested stakeholders are invited to submit comments on the content of this proposed risk management approach or provide other information that would help to inform decision making. Please submit comments prior to July 31, 2013, since the risk management of site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases will be moving forward after this date. During the development of regulations, instrument(s) and tool(s), there will be opportunity for consultation. Comments and information submissions on the proposed risk management approach should be submitted to the address provided below:
Program Development and Engagement Division
Gatineau QC K1A 0H3
Tel: 1-888-228-0530 / 819-956-9313
[API] American Petroleum Institute. 2001a. Petroleum gases test plan. Revised October 2001. Submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, by the Petroleum HPV Testing Group. [cited 2008 Aug 14]. http://www.epa.gov/HPV/pubs/summaries/ptrlgas/c13224rt.pdf
[API] American Petroleum Institute. 2001b. Robust summaries for petroleum gases. [cited 2008 Aug 14]. http://www.epa.gov/HPV/pubs/summaries/ptrlgas/c13224rr.pdf
[API] American Petroleum Institute. 2009a. Refinery gases category analysis and hazard characterization. Submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, by the Petroleum HPV Testing Group. Consortium registration no. 1100997. http://www.petroleumhpv.org/docs/pet_gases/2009_aug03_refinerygases_catanalysis_final_epasubmission_CAD FINAL 7-14-09.pdf
[API] American Petroleum Institute. 2009b. Petroleum hydrocarbon gases category analysis and hazard characterization. Submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, by the Petroleum HPV Testing Group. Consortium registration no. 1100997. http://www.petroleumhpv.org/pages/petroleumgases.html
Canada. 1999. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. S.C., 1999, ch. 33. Canada Gazette. Part III. vol. 22, no. 3. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer. http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-15.31/
Canada. 2000a. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999: Persistence and Bioaccumulation Regulations. P.C. 2000-348, 23 March, 2000, SOR/2000-107, Canada Gazette. Part II, Vol. 134, No. 7, p. 607-612. http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2000-107/index.html
Canada. 2000b. 1,3-Butadiene. Ottawa (ON): Environment Canada, Health Canada (Priority Substances List assessment report). http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/alt_formats/hecs-sesc/pdf/pubs/contaminants/psl2-lsp2/1_3_butadiene/1_3_butadiene-eng.pdf
Canada. 2013. Final Screening Assessment Report for the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach – Site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases. Available from :http://www.ec.gc.ca/ese-ees/default.asp?lang=En&n=08D395AD-1.
[CAPP] Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. 2007. Best management practices: Management of fugitive emissions at upstream oil and gas facilities. http://www.capp.ca/library/publications/policyRegulatory/pages/pubInfo.aspx?DocId=116116#tGzl3f2ZIDxR
[CCME] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 1993. Environmental code of practice for the measurement and control of fugitive VOC emissions from equipment leaks. Prepared by the National Task Force on the Measurement and Control of Fugitive VOC Emissions from Equipment Leaks for CCME. ISBN: 1-895925-12-6. http://www.ccme.ca/assets/pdf/pn_1106_e.pdf
[CCME] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 2005. National Framework for Petroleum Refinery Emission Reductions. http://www.ccme.ca/assets/pdf/nfprer_final_e.pdf
[CCME] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 2012. Base-Level Industrial Emissions Requirements (BLIERs). http://www.ccme.ca/ourwork/air.html?category_id=146#493
[CPPI] Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. 2011. Code of practice for developing an emission inventory for refineries and terminals. Rev. 13. http://canadianfuels.ca/userfiles/file/CPPI_CoP_Rev13_Revised_for_Selenium(1).pdf
[EC IPTS] European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. 2003. Best Available Techniques Reference: Refining of Mineral Oil and Gas. http://eippcb.jrc.es/reference/ref.html
Environment Canada. 2008. Data for petroleum sector stream substances collected under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, section 71: Notice with respect to certain high priority petroleum substances. Data prepared by: Environment Canada, Oil, Gas, and Alternative Energy Division.
[EU] European Union. 2008. Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (Codified version). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32008L0001:EN:NOT
[EU] European Union. 2010. Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32010L0075:EN:NOT
[SENES] SENES Consultants Limited. 2009. Review of current and proposed regulatory and non-regulatory management tools pertaining to selected petroleum substances under the Chemicals Management Plan. Ottawa (ON): SENES Consultants Limited.
Speight JG. 2007. Hydrogen production. In: The chemistry and technology of petroleum. 4th ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 637–660.
Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, 2007. Assessing, Selecting, and Implementing Instruments for Government Action. http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/ri-qr/documents/gl-ld/asses-eval/asses-eval-eng.pdf
Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. 2012a. Cabinet Directive on Regulatory Management. http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rtrap-parfa/cdrm-dcgr/cdrm-dcgrtb-eng.asp
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[US EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1995. Protocol for equipment leak emission estimates. Emission Standard Division, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, US Environmental Protection Agency, North Carolina. Publication No. EPA-453/R-95-017. http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/efdocs/equiplks.pdf
- Footnote 1
A determination of whether one or more of the criteria of section 64 are met and whether risk management may be required is based upon an assessment of potential risks to the environment and/or to human health associated with exposures in the general environment. For humans, this includes exposures from ambient and indoor air, drinking water, foodstuffs and the use of consumer products. A conclusion under CEPA 1999 on the substances in the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) is not relevant to nor does it preclude an assessment against the hazard criteria specified in the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System [WHMIS] Controlled Products Regulations for products intended for workplace use. Similarly, a conclusion based on the criteria contained in section 64 of CEPA 1999 does not preclude actions being undertaken under other sections of CEPA or other Acts.
- Footnote 2
For more information on the assessment of 1,3 butadiene and additional risk management measures related to this substance, refer to 1,3-Butadiene - Ongoing risk management activities
- Date modified: