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Evaluation of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP) Pilot Project on Reducing Emissions from Vehicles and Engines (PPRE)

Annex 2 Literature Review

A literature review was conducted by the Evaluation Team to help assess the broader relevance and success of the PPRE compared to other similar or related initiatives in the United States and Canada, and to identify alternative delivery mechanisms or best practices to be considered for similar programs that may be delivered in the future. The literature review was conducted alongside the document review and included a review of Internet-based information.

Two areas were explored:

  • Comparison of the Government of Canada’s approach to addressing emissions from HDD vehicles to the approach delivered by the U.S. federal administration:
    • A review of the U.S. NCDC and the Government of Canada’s ecoFREIGHT and FleetSmart programs was completed, to provide a more general understanding of the approaches taken by both countries to address vehicle emissions.
  • Comparison of the PPRE to other related capacity-building programs in Canada:
    • The Evaluation Team, in conjunction with the Project Authority, selected three capacity-building programs that aim to reduce vehicle emissions: (1) Fleet Challenge Ontario (Municipal Fleet Review); (2) BC Air Action Plan (Action #10); and (3) the Fleetwiser Program. The criteria used to select these programs included:
      • comparability of program’s scope and objectives to the PPRE objectives; and
      • comparable program structure and delivery mechanisms.

1. Comparison of the Government of Canada’s approach to addressing emissions from HDD vehicles to the approach delivered by the U.S. federal administration

The NCDC was initiated in 2000 by the U.S. EPA to promote clean air strategies, by working with manufacturers, fleet operators, air quality professionals, environmental and community organizations, and state and local officials to reduce diesel emissions. The NCDC focuses on reducing emissions from on-road and off-road diesel engines, through regulations, information-sharing mechanisms, regional clean diesel collaboratives, sector-specific programs and clean diesel funding. It is expected that the NCDC will award $200M USD in funding from 2007 to the end of September 2011. Among other programs, the NCDC administers a Clean School Bus program, which aims to reduce children's exposure to diesel exhaust and the amount of air pollution created by diesel school buses. Clean School Bus USA brings together partners from business, education, transportation, and public health organizations, focusing on anti-idling efforts, retrofitting old buses and replacing the oldest ones with new, less-polluting buses.

In Canada, ecoFREIGHT and FleetSmart are the two major programs with a mandate to reduce emissions generated by the transportation sector. ecoFREIGHT, established in 2007 and managed by Transport Canada, supports the freight transportation industry toward a greater uptake of technologies and practices that reduce fuel consumption, CACs and GHGs. The program was expected to receive $61 million from 2007 through to 2011. FleetSmart, a part of the ecoENERGY for Fleets suite administered by NRCan, seeks to provide practical advice and consultation on how energy-efficient vehicles and business practices can reduce fleet operating costs, improve productivity and increase competitiveness.

Table 11 provides a high-level overview of NCDC, ecoFREIGHT and FleetSmart. An overview of the PPRE has been included to highlight similarities and differences between the programs.

This analysis has highlighted that the United States has a comprehensive approach to reducing diesel emissions through the NCDC. The NCDC has significant funding ($200 million in clean diesel funding alone from 2007 to 2011) and is an integrated, umbrella system to channelling initiatives aimed at reducing diesel emissions. The target audience for this initiative is heterogeneous and includes manufacturers, fleet operators, air quality professionals, environmental and community organizations, and state and local officials, which allows the initiative to address a variety of systems and vehicle types, including on-road vehicles, existing and new off-road vehicles, marine vessels, and locomotives. Similarly, the NCDC includes multiple delivery mechanisms, including regulatory development, funding assistance, and development of publications and materials to develop the capacity of vehicle operators to reduce emissions caused by diesel vehicles.

The ecoFREIGHT and FleetSmart programs provide funding and capacity-building activities to reduce emissions, but they do not focus exclusively on diesel emissions. They each target a specific audience--the freight transportation industry for ecoFREIGHT, and the commercial highway freight sector for FleetSmart--and address off-road and on-road vehicles. Delivery mechanisms include capacity-building initiatives for both, but ecoFREIGHT also provides funding mechanisms and incentives in addition to establishing voluntary agreements with the freight transportation industry.

In addition to these programs, Canada has developed and will continue to develop a series of regulations to reduce smog-forming air pollutant emissions from vehicles and engines in alignment with the standards of the U.S. EPA. Currently, there are regulations in place to reduce air pollutant emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks, heavy-duty vehicles, motorcycles, small marine engines such as outboards and personal watercraft, recreational vehicles as well as construction and agricultural equipment, and garden equipment such as lawnmowers and chainsaws. Canada will continue to amend and update existing regulations to maintain alignment with the U.S.

Canada addresses diesel emissions under CEPA 1999 through:

  • The Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulations which came into force in 2003 set maximum limits for sulphur in on-road, off-road, rail (locomotive) and marine (vessel) diesel fuels.
  • The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations which came into effect in 2004, control emission of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, benzene, and a number of other toxic substances from the operation of on-road vehicle engines. These regulations aligned Canadian emission standards with those of the United States for light-duty passenger vehicles, light-duty trucks (such as vans, pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles), heavy-duty vehicles (such as heavy trucks and buses), and motorcycles.
  • The Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engine Emissions Regulations which came into force in 2006 and introduced emission standards for diesel engines such as those found in construction, agricultural and forestry machinery. The standards were aligned with U.S. EPA tier 2 & 3 emission standards. On February 12, 2011, the proposed Regulations Amending the Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engine Emissions Regulations were published in the Canada Gazette Part I. These amendments will result in further reductions of smog-forming emissions from the off-road diesel engine sector.

The Government of Canada has also recently announced regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles including:

  • The Passenger Automobile and Light Truck Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations were published in Canada Gazette, Part II in October 2010 and establish progressively stringent fleet average GHG emissions standards for new vehicles sold in model years 2011 through 2016. These regulations are aligned with those in the U.S. and apply to companies that manufacture new cars and light trucks in Canada, or import these vehicles into Canada for the purpose of sale. In October 2010, the Government of Canada published a Notice of Intent in Canada Gazette, Part I, to develop standards for new passenger automobiles and light trucks of model years 2017 to 2025, in coordination with the U.S. EPA.
  • On May 21, 2010 Canada and the U.S. announced their respective intentions to develop regulations to limit GHG emissions from new on-road heavy-duty vehicles such as buses and combination tractors. The Canadian regulations would be developed under CEPA 1999 and would align Canadian standards with those of the U.S. for the 2014 and later model year vehicles.

Table 11: Comparison of U.S. and Canadian Approaches to Reducing Emissions from HDD Vehicles

U.S. Approach

National Clean Diesel Campaign

Overall objective

To promote clean air strategies by working with manufacturers, fleet operators, air quality professionals, environmental and community organizations, and state and local officials to reduce diesel emissions

Funding

N/A
($200 million for clean diesel funding from 2007 to 2011)

Lead organization

U.S. EPA

Delivery partner

U.S. EPA

Target audience

Manufacturers, fleet operators, air quality professionals, environmental and community organizations, and state and local officials

Types of vehicles

On-road vehicles
Off-road vehicles
Large ocean vessels
Diesel engines (including locomotive and marine engines)

Activities

  • Regulations
  • Information-sharing through website (e.g., tool kits, information on technologies, etc.)
  • Regional clean diesel collaboratives (through public-private partnerships)
  • Sector-specific programs (clean school buses, clean ports, clean construction, clean agriculture, SmartWay Transport)
  • Clean diesel funding, including:
    • National Clean Diesel Funding Assistance Program (50% of funding dedicated to public fleets)
    • National Clean Diesel Emerging Technologies Program
    • SmartWay Clean Diesel Finance Program
    • State Clean Diesel Grant Program

Duration

Ongoing since 2000


Canadian Approach

FleetSmart (part of ecoENERGY for Fleets)

Overall objective

To offer free practical advice on how energy-efficient vehicles and business practices can reduce fleet operating costs, improve productivity and increase competitiveness

Funding

N/A

Lead organization

NRCan

Delivery partner

NRCan

Target audience

Commercial highway freight sector (commercial and municipal fleets)

Types of vehicles

On-road vehicles

Activities

  • Capacity-building initiatives
    • SmartDriver training
    • Fuel Management 101 workshops
  • Information-sharing through website (fuel-saving information, tool kit, publications, links, newsletter)

Duration

Ongoing since 1997


ecoFREIGHT

Overall objective

To support the freight transportation industry toward a greater uptake of technologies and practices that reduce fuel consumption, CACs and GHG emissions

Funding

$61 million

Lead organization

Transport Canada

Delivery partner

Transport Canada

Target audience

Freight transportation industry (trucking industry, companies in the air, rail, road and marine sectors, users of the freight system)

Types of vehicles

Off-road vehicles
On-road vehicles

Activities

  • Six initiatives, including:
    • Freight Technology Demonstration Fund
    • Freight Technology Incentives Program
    • Marine Shore Power Program
    • National Harmonization Initiative for the Trucking Industry
    • ecoFREIGHT Partnerships
    • ecoENERGY for Fleets (NRCan program)
  • Voluntary agreements with freight industry associations
  • Information-sharing through website (case studies, ecoFREIGHT announcements and newsletters)

Duration

2007 to 2011


PPRE Pilot Project

Overall objective

To reduce emissions from Canada’s on-road HDD municipal fleet by increasing knowledge, awareness and supporting tools for municipalities

Funding

$1.2 million for 2008 to 2011

Lead organization

Environment Canada

Delivery partner

FCM
MSC
CAP

Target audience

Municipalities
School bus operators and districts

Types of vehicles

On-road vehicles (heavy-duty only)
Diesel engines

Activities

  • Capacity-building initiatives:
    • Enviro-Fleets project with the FCM (resources guide, best practices guide, webinars and workshops for municipal fleet managers)
    • Southwest Ontario school bus and garbage truck retrofit pilot
  • Studies and information-collection activities:
    • Scoping study on the HDD school bus fleets within Canada
    • Study on the number and age of school buses operated by or for school boards in Ontario
    • Research on policies and/or contract language that can be used to reduce emissions of GHGs or air pollutants from school buses

Duration

2008 to 2011

Source

Evaluation Work Plan
Documentation Review

2. Comparison of the PPRE to other related capacity-building programs in Canada

Fleet Challenge: Delivered by Fleet Challenge Ontario (FCO), an Ontario-based NGO, the municipal fleet review program is funded by the Government of Ontario. The objective of the program is to reduce GHG emissions from municipal fleets by supporting green management decisions and demonstrating ways to improve operations. The program has helped renew fleets in approximately 40 municipalities, by supporting initiatives such as developing tool kits and guidelines for municipal fleet operators, completing retrofit audits of on-site municipal fleets, and providing networking opportunities to municipal fleet operators by delivering workshops and hosting meetings. The program was launched as a pilot program in 2008 and is set to continue until 2012.

B.C. Action Plan: This is part of the B.C. provincial government’s broader strategy to lead the world in sustainable environmental management. The BC Air Action Plan contains eight actions aimed at making heavy-duty vehicles cleaner. For example, Action #10, “Green vehicle fleets: we’re making it happen,” pertains to Green Fleets BC, a partnership initiative led by the Fraser Basin Council. The goal of the initiative is to help owners of commercial and public sector vehicle fleets improve their fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Under this initiative, the Council has been a key information hub for the latest on green technologies for private and public sector fleets, including taxis, emergency vehicles, delivery vans and commercial freight trucks. Green Fleets BC has also supported demonstration projects on trucking technologies and on the use of biodiesel in British Columbia’s public sector and commercial vehicle fleets, and sponsored a new network of fleet managers.

Fleetwiser: The Fleetwiser program in Nova Scotia is funded by NRCan and delivered by Clean Nova Scotia, a regional NGO. The program is currently helping four municipalities and one utility reduce their emissions and make environmentally friendly choices, by providing participating fleet managers and operators with free consultation, training and resources. These resources and training have included Fleet Efficiency Tool Kits developed for fleet managers, operators and technicians, and Fuel Management 101 workshops.

A summary of each program is provided in Table 12. In addition to these programs, a brief overview of the PPRE has been included to highlight the similarities and differences across these programs.

Table 12: Comparison of the PPRE to other capacity-building programs in Canada

Fleet Challenge Ontario (Municipal Fleet Review)

Funding (source and amount)

Supported by the Government of Ontario (Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Ontario Ministry of Finance)

$ - N/A

Partners

FCO (Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance)

The FCO program has been made possible through the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance in partnership with the Ontario Ministry of Transportation and the Ontario Ministry of Finance, through the Strengthening Our Partnerships initiative.

Target audience

Ontario municipalities: 11 municipalities selected to participate in 2009; 8 municipalities in 2010; 10 municipalities in 2011

Between 2008 and 2010, over 7000 vehicles in Ontario’s municipal fleets have completed FCO’s Fleet Review.

FCO also works with governments, private business, and private and public sector fleets.

Context (rationale and need for the program)

It is estimated that approximately 26% of Canadian GHG emissions are released from the transportation sector (GHGs are directly related to fuel consumed). Automotive technology is improving in order to reduce emission intensity, but the number of vehicles on Canadian roads continues to grow.

Municipal fleet operations usually perform according to fixed annual cycles. Vehicles are outfitted to complete specific tasks and sustain municipal services. The Municipal Fleet Review Program delivers a comprehensive set of reports that support green management decisions and demonstrate ways to improve operations, thereby reducing costs and GHG emissions.

Objective/goal

The Fleet Review is a green fleet optimization program designed with principles similar to LEED© for buildings, and is Canada’s leading initiative in this area. Supported by the Government of Ontario, FCO works with each municipality’s fleet management team to evaluate a broad range of management options, including fuel efficiency, vehicle selection, maintenance techniques, asset management, computer systems and end-of-cycle disposal of surplus vehicles.

Mechanisms/activities completed

Fleet Review Process
  • The Fleet Review Program is applicable to licensed, on-road leased or owned vehicles using any fuel type.
  • Participating municipalities are required to contribute a nominal fee to the Municipal Fleet Review Program based on the fleet size (from $1,250 to $2,500).
  • Steps for the fleet review:
    • A compilation of fleet data by the fleet department. FCO employs a unique software system with an extensive database of current, relevant fleet information. A fleet’s data are entered and a series of computer-generated reports is produced. Results are further analyzed and interpreted by FCO experts in accordance with a fleet’s unique features.
    • Participants receive a set of detailed reports and a synopsis; contents include recommendations and a comprehensive roadmap to green and improve fleet efficiency. FCO experts then meet with the fleet operators and related personnel at their location to review and discuss the results and answer questions.
Forums and workshops

As part of the Ontario Municipal Fleet Review Program, and with the support of the Government of Ontario, FCO presents forums and workshops that keep fleet managers on the cutting edge of green transportation trends, technology developments and green fleet initiatives. These have included FCO Networking Breakfasts (two each in 2009 and 2010), an FCO-FCM workshop for fleet managers, etc.

Time frame / duration

Pilot project in 2008
Extension from 2009–2012


BC Air Action Plan

Funding (source and amount)

Funded by the BC Ministry of Environment ($28.5 million over three years to implement the plan, in partnership with industry, communities and other levels of government)

Partners

Action #10: Green Fleets BC, a partnership initiative led by the Fraser Basin Council

Target audience

For Actions 5–13: a variety of stakeholders (municipalities, school districts, transit organizations, etc.)
Action #10: Private and public sector fleets

Context (rationale and need for the program)

The BC Air Action Plan is part of the BC provincial government’s broader strategy to lead the world in sustainable environmental management, with the best air and water quality and the best fisheries management. The 28 actions outlined complement the work under way across B.C. to address climate change, improve air quality, protect water, enhance public transit, improve local planning, and make the province electricity self-sufficient by 2016.

Rationale for action on heavy-duty vehicles: older commercial and industrial vehicles can emit up to 60 times more fine PM than those with new, modern engines. And modern engines can run even cleaner when they switch from 100% diesel fuel to a biodiesel blend.

Objective/goal

The BC Air Action Plan contains eight actions aimed at making heavy-duty vehicles cleaner (Actions 5–13).

Mechanisms/activities completed

Actions:

Action #5: Retrofit HDD vehicles
Action #6: Retrofit transit buses
Action #7: Clean up school buses (funding to school districts to buy new, clean buses)
Action #8: Get AirCare ON-ROAD out to more communities
Action #9: Get big diesels to stop idling
Action #10: Green vehicle fleets: we’re making it happen
Action #11: Use biodiesel in government diesel vehicles
Action #12: B.C. Buys Green
Action #13: Support greener ports and marine vessels

Action #10, “Green vehicle fleets: we’re making it happen”, pertains to the Green Fleets BC initiative (a partnership with the Fraser Basin Council). The goal is to have Green Fleets BC be a key information hub for the latest on green technologies for private and public sector fleets, including taxis, emergency vehicles, delivery vans and commercial freight trucks. Initiatives include:

  • Green Trucking Technologies: Green Fleets BC will support demonstration projects on trucking technologies to help fleet managers make good choices for the best results.
  • BC BioFleet: Green Fleets BC is sponsoring demonstration projects on the use of biodiesel in the B.C. public sector and commercial vehicle fleets, through branding, website resources, training workshops, outreach and incentives.
  • Hybrid Experience Report: The report documents the real-life experiences and fuel efficiency results of fleets that use hybrid vehicles.
  • Green Fleets Network: Green Fleets BC is sponsoring a new network of fleet managers.
  • Canada’s Green Fuels Map: The Canada's Green Fuels Map provides an online lookup of both retail and key-lock stations, coast to coast.
  • Emissions calculator tool.

Time frame / duration

Launched in 2007
Website features information from 2007 to 2009, but should have funding from 2008 to 2011


Clean Nova Scotia - Fleetwiser Program

Funding (source and amount)

Funded by NRCan (ecoENERY for Fleets)

$ - N/A

Partners

Clean Nova Scotia (not-for-profit organization)

Target audience

Municipalities and utilities

Context (rationale and need for the program)

“Solutions are available today that greatly reduce vehicle fuel consumption and harmful emissions, what's needed is the will to make the change.”

Objective/goal

Fleetwiser seeks to create a cleaner, healthier environment by informing, enabling and inspiring Nova Scotian fleets to respect and consider the environment in all their choices.

Mechanisms/activities completed

Clean Nova Scotia’s Fleetwiser Pilot Project is working with four municipalities and one utility to improve vehicle fleet efficiency and reduce fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and business costs.

Participating fleet managers and operators receive free consultation, training and resources to produce measurable efficiency improvements. The program delivers fleet energy efficiency through education, technology, outreach, and driver awareness initiatives. Fleet baseline data, NRCan’s online Fleet Emissions Tool accounts, and individual fleet action plans are in development. The knowledge and tools gained from the project will be used to improve the fuel efficiency of other fleets that are interested.

Initiatives to date:

  • Nova Scotia municipal and utility fleet managers have participated in Fuel Management 101 workshops.
  • Fleet Efficiency Tool Kits have been developed for fleet managers, operators and technicians, and are accessible through Fleetwiser’s website, as are other key resources.
  • Strategies implemented by municipalities / utilities have included: anti-idling and efficient driving promotion and education, in-car training, preventive maintenance, and green procurement planning to optimize fleet equipment, technology and vehicles.
  • Customized vehicle-tracking systems and idle-reduction technologies are being tested on vehicles such as snow plows and salt trucks, bucket-lift trucks, buses, and light-duty vehicles.

Time frame / duration

From 2009 to 2011


PPRE Pilot Project

Funding (source and amount)

Environment Canada (through Industry Canada’s SPP)
$1.2 million for 2008 to 2011

Partners

FCM
MSC
CAP

Target audience

Municipalities
School buses – school bus operators and districts

Context (rationale and need for the program)

The PPRE complements CARA by addressing emissions from existing vehicles and engines that could remain on Canada’s roads for up to 20 years. It targeted on-road HDD vehicles such as trucks and school buses, and explores how best to voluntarily reduce their emissions.

Objective/goal

The objective is to reduce emissions from Canada’s on-road HDD municipal fleet. The project aims to increase knowledge, awareness and supporting tools for municipalities to reduce their emissions, by highlighting emission reduction potentials and identifying barriers to the widespread adoption of emission reduction strategies for fleet vehicles.

Mechanisms/activities completed

Environment Canada worked with the FCM to enable the following activities:

  • Establish partnerships with municipal fleet managers’ networks, federal and provincial agencies, environmental NGOs and private sector organizations.
  • Create a baseline of municipal heavy-duty fleets in Canada, including a fleet profile, an overview of best practices, and an identification of barriers to greening fleet initiatives.
  • Identify and create an online resource in both official languages for municipal fleet managers that will provide information on best practices available to achieve emission reductions.
  • Promote, in both official languages, the resources guide and other products and services.
  • Deliver education and training workshops in collaboration with partners, using resources identified to increase the capacity of municipal fleet managers to act.
  • Develop a business case for emission reduction initiatives in heavy-duty fleets that can be included in a resources guide.

In addition to the work completed in conjunction with FCM, Environment Canada worked with other Government of Canada ecoTRANSPORT funding programs (i.e., Transport Canada’s ecoFREIGHT, NRCan’s FleetSmart) to ensure they were aware of these activities for the on-road public HDD fleets. Furthermore, Environment Canada worked in conjunction with CAP and MSC to collect information about, and build capacity to address, emissions from school buses in select communities in Ontario.

Time frame / duration

From 2008 to 2011

Source

Evaluation Work Plan, February 2011

This analysis has demonstrated that all selected capacity-building programs have a similar temporal scope of two to four years, in line with the PPRE’s three-year time frame. In addition, all programs partnered with an NGO to deliver their activities. All target audiences for the programs included municipalities, although the Green Fleets BC initiative also targeted the commercial sector, whereas Fleetwiser worked with one utility and the PPRE’s scope included school bus operators and school districts.

Although none of the programs were found to have a specific objective to build the capacity of municipal fleet operators responsible for on-road HDD vehicles, the literature review demonstrated that there are multiple alternatives to building capacity in order to reduce vehicle emissions more generally, including the following:

  • Conducting audits of municipal fleets, which focus on identifying retrofit opportunities by conducting an on-site audit of a municipal fleet
  • Workshops, such as for fleet managers regarding fuel efficiency or how to green their heavy-duty vehicle fleet
  • Networking, which includes networking opportunities through joining various fleet manager networks
  • Developing guidelines and toolkits, which are provided to fleet managers and cover a range of topics ranging from best practices to emerging technologies
  • Links to other resources, primarily through the organizations’ websites
  • Testing of reduction technologies, which focuses on supporting demonstration projects and purchasing reduction technologies
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