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Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in the Canadian Environment


(1) Ahrens, L.; Shoeib, M.; Del Vento, S.; Codling, G.; Halsall, C. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the Canadian Arctic atmosphere. Environ. Chem. 2011, 8, 399-406.

(2) Ahrens, L.; Shoeib, M.; Harner, T.; Lane, D. A.; Guo, R.; Reiner, E. J. Comparison of annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers for measuring per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the atmosphere. Anal Chem. 2011, 83, 9622-9628.

(3) Genualdi, S.; Lee, S. C.; Shoeib, M.; Gawor, A.; Ahrens, L.; Harner, T. Global pilot study of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants using sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 5534-5539.

(4) De Silva, A. O.; Backus, S. M.; Gewurtz, S. B.; McGoldrick, D. J.; Gledhill, M.; Sekela, M.; Syrgiannis, J.; Struger, J.; Rondeau, M.; Pomeroy, J. A spatial survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water in Canada. 2012, In Preparation.

(5) De Silva, A. O.; Spencer, C.; Scott, B. F.; Backus, S. M.; Muir, D. C. G. Detection of a cyclic perfluorinated acid, perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate, in the Great Lakes of North America. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 8060-8066.

(6) Myers, A. L.; Crozier, P. W.; Helm, P. A.; Brimacombe, C.; Furdui, V. I.; Reiner, E. J.; Burniston, D.; Marvin, C. H. Fate, distribution, and contrasting temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Lake Ontario, Canada. Environ. Int. 2012, 44, 92-99.

(7) Gewurtz, S. B.; De Silva, A. O.; Backus, S. M.; McGoldrick, D. J.; Keir, M. J.; Small, J.; Melymuck, L.; Muir, D. C. G. Perfluoroalkyl substances in Lake Ontario Lake Trout: Detailed examination of current status and long-term trends. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 5842-5850.

(8) Gebbink, W. A.; Letcher, R. J.; Burgess, N. M.; Champoux, L.; Elliott, J. E.; Hebert, C. E.; Martin, P.; Wayland, M.; Weseloh, D. V. C.; Wilson, L. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates and precursors in relation to dietary source tracers in the eggs of four species of gulls (Larids) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada. Environ. Int. 2011, 37, 1175-1182.

(9) Gebbink, W. A.; Letcher, R. J.; Hebert, C. E.; Weseloh, D. V. Twenty years of temporal change in perfluoroalkyl sulfonate and carboxylate contaminants in Herring Gull eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes. J. Environ. Monit. 2011, 13, 3365-3372.

(10) Gebbink, W. A.; Letcher, R. J. Comparative tissue and body compartment accumulation and maternal transfer to eggs of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylates in Great Lakes Herring Gulls. Environ. Pollut. 2012, 162, 40-47.

(11) de Solla, S. R.; De Silva, A. O.; Letcher, R. J. Highly elevated levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorinated acids found in biota and surface water downstream of an international airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Environ. Int. 2012, 39, 19-26.

(12) Conestoga Rovers & Associates Sampling for Chemicals Management Plan Challenge Substances from the Waste Sector: 2010 Field Sampling Program; CRA Project number 054555 (5); Conestoga Rovers & Associates in a report prepared for Environment Canada: Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2011.

(13) Ahrens, L.; Shoeib, M.; Harner, T.; Lee, S. C.; Guo, R.; Reiner, E. J. Wastewater treatment plant and landfills as sources of polyfluoroalkyl compounds to the atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 8098-8105.

(14) Vierke, L.; Ahrens, L.; Shoeib, M.; Reiner, E. J.; Guo, R.; Palm, W.-U.; Ebinghaus, R.; Harner, T. Air concentrations and particle-gas partitioning of polyfluoroalkyl compounds at a wastewater treatment plant. Environ. Chem. 2011, 8, 363-371.

(15) Shoeib, M.; Harner, T.; M. Webster, G.; Lee, S. C. Indoor sources of poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Vancouver, Canada: Implications for human exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 7999-8005.

(16) Butt, C. M.; Berger, U.; Bossi, R.; Tomy, G. T. Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the Arctic environment. Sci. Total Environ. 2010, 408, 2936-2965.

(17) Ahrens, L. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the aquatic environment: a review of their occurrence and fate. J. Environ. Monit. 2011, 13, 20-31.

(18) Environment Canada Ecological Screening Assessment Report on Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Its Salts and Its Precursors that Contain the C8F17SO2 or C8F17SO3 or C8F17SO2N Moiety; 2006.

(19) Health Canada State of the Science Report for a Screening Health Assessment on Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Its Salts and Its Precursors that Contain the C8F17SO2 or C8F17SO3 Moiety; 2006.

(20) Environment Canada. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Virtual Elimination Act. 2008.

(21) Government of Canada Notice with respect to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), its salts and its precursors. Canada Gazette Part I 2005, Vol. 139, No. 3.

(22) Environment Canada Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines for Perfluorooctane Surfonate (PFOS). Draft for Review; National Guidelines and Standards Office: Gatineau, QC, 2013.

(23) Helm, P. A.; Milne, J.; V., B.-H.; Crozier, P. W.; Kolic, T.; Lega, R.; Chen, T.; MacPherson, K.; Gewurtz, S. B.; Winter, J. G.; Myers, A.; Marvin, C. H.; Reiner, E. J. Lake-wide distribution and depositional history of current- and past-use persistent organic pollutants in Lake Simcoe. J. Great Lakes Res. 2011, 37, 132-141.

(24) Furdui, V. I.; Helm, P. A.; Lucaciu, C.; Reiner, E. J.; Marvin, C. H.; Whittle, D. M.; Mabury, S. A.; Tomy, G. T. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl compounds with isomer analysis in Lake Trout from Lake Ontario (1979-2004). Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 4739-4744.

(25) Furdui, V. I.; Stock, N. L.; Ellis, D. A.; Butt, C. M.; Whittle, D. M.; Crozier, P. W.; Reiner, E. J.; Muir, D. C. G.; Mabury, S. A. Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in Lake Trout from the Great Lakes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 1554-1559.

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