Chlorinated Alkanes (previously called Chlorinated Paraffins)
The term paraffins used to identify these substances was changed to alkanes to harmonize with more current nomenclature that is recognized by other jurisdictions and international bodies.
Chlorinated alkanes are chlorinated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) that can have carbon chain lengths ranging from 10 to 38 carbon atoms. They are generally grouped by chain length: short-chain chlorinated alkanes (containing 10-13 carbon atoms), medium-chain chlorinated alkanes (containing 14-17 carbon atoms) and long-chain chlorinated alkanes (with 18 or more carbon atoms). Short-chain chlorinated alkanes have been found in the Arctic food web. The higher volatility of certain short-chain compounds suggests that their presence resulted from long-range atmospheric transportation.
Chlorinated alkanes are no longer manufactured in Canada, but are still imported into Canada and used in the manufacturing of rubber and the formulation of metalworking fluids (i.e. cutting fluids, high pressure lubricating oils). Other uses include as a plasticizer or flame retardant in various plastics or formulated chemical products (e.g. adhesives, paints, sealants).
Chlorinated alkanes were included on the first Priority Substances List (PSL) program under the 1988 Canadian Environmental Protection Act for assessment of potential risks to the environment and human health. In 1993, Environment Canada and Health Canada published an assessment report that concluded short-chain chlorinated alkanes constitute or may constitute a danger to human health or life as set out in the Act. On August 30, 2008, a notice summarizing the scientific considerations of a final follow-up assessment report was published by Environment Canada and Health Canada in the Canada Gazette, Part I for chlorinated alkanes. The final follow-up assessment report concluded that:
- Short-chain and medium-chain chlorinated alkanes are entering the environment in a quantity or a concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health, and thus meet the definition of “toxic” under paragraph 64(c) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999); and
- Chlorinated alkanes containing up to 20 carbon atoms are entering or may be entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity, and thus meet the definition of “toxic” under paragraph 64(a) of CEPA 1999.
Based on the conclusions of the assessment, it was therefore recommended that all chlorinated alkanes be added to Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999. Furthermore, chlorinated alkanes containing up to 20 carbon atoms are predominantly anthropogenic, and the available data regarding their persistence and bioaccumulation potential indicate that they satisfy the criteria outlined in the Persistence and Bioaccumulation Regulations, under CEPA 1999. Chlorinated alkanes containing up to 20 carbon atoms were also recommended for addition to the Virtual Elimination List.
Risk management action has been initiated for chlorinated alkanes containing 10 to 13 carbon atoms (short-chain chlorinated alkanes). These substances, which are no longer in commerce, have been added to the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations, 2012. These Regulations prohibit the manufacture, use, sale or import of short chain chlorinated alkanes in Canada.
For more information on this substance, please visit the Chemical Substances website.
- Priority Substances List Assessment Report
- Final Follow-Up Assessment Report on Chlorinated Paraffins (2008)
- CEPA 1999 Schedule 1 - List of Toxic Substances - This substance has been recommended for addition to the List of Toxic Substances
Risk Management Strategy
Click on the following link to view strategies and actions recommended to manage risks associated with the substance:
Risk Management Tool(s)
Tool(s) developed to manage risks associated with the substance:
Risk Management Supporting Activities
Activities supporting the development or implementation of the risk management tool(s):
Forms related to the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations, 2012:
- Schedule 3: Information Related to the Use of Certain Toxic Substances in a Laboratory for Analysis, in Scientific Research or as a Laboratory Analytical Standard
- Schedule 4: Information to be Contained in an Application for a Permit
- Schedule 5: Information Relating to the Manufacture or Import of Toxic Substances or the Import of a Product Containing It
Consultation (past and present) on the substance:
- Summary of public comments received regarding the Government of Canada Assessment "Follow-Up Report on Chlorinated Paraffins"
- Consultation Document - Chlorinated Paraffins - October 2009
- Response to Comments on the Risk Management Approach and Consultation Document on Chlorinated Alkanes (Chlorinated Paraffins)
Chemicals Management Division
351 St. Joseph Blvd.
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