Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada : July 2013

Canadian Wildlife Service
Waterfowl Committee

Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) Migratory Birds Regulatory Report Number 39

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2012 Canadian Wildlife Habitat Conservation Stamp
It features a pair of features the Blue-winged Teal painted by Patricia Pépin, a Canadian wildlife artist.
Photo: © It features a pair of features the Blue-winged Teal painted by Patricia Pépin, a Canadian wildlife artist.

 

Document information

For more information on migratory birds, please visit the following website: Environment Canada’s Migratory Birds website

Helpful Tip:

Canadians may be exposed to avian-borne viruses when birdwatching, hunting or handling migratory birds and other wild game. Environment Canada recommends the following website, maintained by the Public Health Agency of Canada, for information on minimizing the risk of exposure: Infectious Diseases – Public Health Agency of Canada.

Cover Art:

The Canadian Wildlife Habitat Conservation Stamp, entitled Evening Repose, features the Blue-winged Teal. It is a creation of the Canadian wildlife artist Patricia Pépin of Quebec.

Through a special partnership with Environment Canada, Wildlife Habitat Canada receives the revenues from the sale of the Canadian Wildlife Habitat Conservation Stamp, purchased primarily by waterfowl hunters to validate their Migratory Game Bird Hunting Permits. The conservation stamp is also sold to stamp and print collectors and those interested in contributing to habitat conservation. In 2012-2013, Wildlife Habitat Canada provided 34 grants totalling more than $1.3 million. This in turn helped leverage an additional $9 million in partner funding for conservation projects, resulting in the conservation, restoration and enhancement of more than 1 million acres of wildlife habitat across Canada (Wildlife Habitat Canada 2013).

For more information on Wildlife Habitat Canada or the conservation stamp and print program, please call Wildlife Habitat Canada at 613-722-2090 (in the Ottawa region) or toll-free at 1-800-669-7919, or consult Wildlife Habitat Canada's website.

Authors:

This report was prepared by the Canadian Wildlife Service Waterfowl Committee, and edited by Renée Bergeron of the National Office of the Canadian Wildlife Service.

Correct citation for this report:

Canadian Wildlife Service Waterfowl Committee. 2013. Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada: July 2013. Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) Migr. Birds Regul. Rep. No. 39.

Comments:

Comments regarding the regulation-setting process or other concerns relating to migratory birds should be sent to Environment Canada’s Canadian Wildlife Service, National Office:

Director of Population Conservation and Management
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa ON K1A 0H3
Email: mbregs.reports-rapports.omregs@ec.gc.ca.

Region-specific comments should be sent to Canadian Wildlife Service Regional Directors:

Director, Atlantic Region

Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
17 Waterfowl Lane, P.O. Box 6227
Sackville NB  E4L 1G6

Director, Quebec Region

Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
801-1550 d'Estimauville Avenue
Québec QC  G1J 0C3

Director, Ontario Region

Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
4905 Dufferin Street
Toronto ON  M3H 5T4

Director, Prairie and Northern Region

Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Twin Atria Building, Room 200, 4999–98 Avenue
Edmonton AB  T6B 2X3

Director, Pacific and Yukon Region

Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
5421 Robertson Road
Delta BC  V4K 3N2

Background

Canadian hunting regulations for migratory game birds are reviewed annually by Environment Canada (EC), with input from the provinces and territories and a range of other interested stakeholders. As part of this process, the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) of EC produces three reports each year. The first report, Population Status of Migratory Game Birds in Canada, commonly called the November report, contains population and other biological information on migratory game birds, and thus provides the scientific basis for management. The second report, Proposals to Amend the Canadian Migratory Birds Regulations (including Regulation Proposals for Overabundant Species) (the December report), outlines the proposed changes to the annual hunting regulations, as well as other proposed amendments to the Migratory Birds Regulations. Proposals for hunting regulations are developed in accordance with the Objectives and Guidelines for the Establishment of National Regulations for Migratory Game Bird Hunting.

The third report, Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada (the July report), summarizes the hunting regulations for the upcoming hunting season. The three documents are distributed to organizations and individuals with an interest in migratory game bird conservation, to provide an opportunity for input into the development of hunting regulations in this country.

The process for the development of regulations in Canada requires that any changes be in the form of final proposals by late February of each year. That means that regulations must be set without the benefit of knowledge about the breeding conditions and production forecasts of the coming year. This does not usually present difficulties because the hunting regulations are based on trends over several years, but in some cases the results from recent harvest surveys or breeding population surveys conducted in May and June will indicate that changes in the national approach are needed to ensure conservation of migratory game birds. In this case, EC will process a regulatory amendment and issue a bulletin updating these regulations.

Annual schedule for the development of hunting regulations

The annual schedule for the development of hunting regulations is based on the requirement to have the annual hunting regulations made into law by early June of each year:

  • October through November – The Population Status of Migratory Game Birds in Canada report, containing biological information on migratory game birds, is developed. In early January, it is distributed and posted on the EC Nature website.
  • November – CWS regional offices develop proposals for hunting regulations in consultations with the provinces and territories and interested stakeholders.
  • Early to mid-January – the Proposals to Amend the Canadian Migratory Birds Regulations report containing the regulation proposals is posted on the EC Nature website and distributed to allow for public, interregional and international consultation.
  • Early June – Hunting regulations become law.
  • Early July – The Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada report, containing the approved hunting regulations, is distributed and posted on the EC Nature website. The migratory game bird hunting regulation summaries are available on the EC Nature website.
  • Early August – Hunting regulation summaries are available at Canada Post outlets.

Note to American readers

The cycle of regulation development takes place earlier in Canada than in the United States. To meet the requirements of the process for the development of regulations in Canada, proposals for hunting regulations must be finalized no later than late February. Canadian representatives at the summer Flyway Council meetings and other hearings are not reporting on what is being considered, but on what has been passed into law.

Breeding population surveys

The results of the 2013 breeding population surveys will be described in detail and compared to historical data sets in the Population Status of Migratory Game Birds in Canada report to be published in January 2014.

American Black Duck harvest strategy

The international Black Duck harvest strategy was adopted in July 2012 by the CWS and the United States (U.S.) Fish and Wildlife Service. The objectives of the strategy, based on the principles of adaptive harvest management, are to:

  • Maintain a black duck population that provides consumptive and non-consumptive use commensurate with habitat carrying capacity;
  • Maintain societal values associated with the hunting tradition; and
  • Maintain equitable access to the black duck resource.

As such, the strategy is designed to identify appropriate harvest levels in Canada and the U.S. based on population levels of Black Ducks and sympatric Mallards while sharing the Black Duck harvest equally between the two countries; however, recognizing incomplete control of harvest through regulations, it allows realized harvest in either country to vary between 40% and 60% of the annual continental harvest.

The harvest strategy will be implemented beginning with the 2013–2014 hunting season. The strategy was used to determine the appropriate Black Duck harvest regulations; it recommended more liberal regulations in Canada than in past years. Details on the 2013–2014 Black Duck regulations can be found in the “Hunting Regulations for the 2013–2014 Season” section below.

Frequent evaluations of the strategy will be conducted to ensure that it continues to meet the objectives stated above.

Proposal to establish migratory game bird hunting regulations for two-year periods as an alternative to the current annual process

Goal

The objective of this proposal is to reduce the resource burden on government associated with the regulatory process required to amend the migratory game birds hunting regulations while continuing to ensure that conservation and harvesting objectives are achieved.

Technical analysis

A technical assessment done in summer 2011 concluded that there would be low conservation risk for hunted species if regulations were established for two- or three-year periods, rather than annually as is now the case. In the event of an unanticipated conservation concern, the regulations could be amended at mid-intervals. Population status would continue to be reviewed annually to ensure that we can respond to important changes in trend or abundance if needed.

Consultations

In 2012, EC consulted on a proposal to establish hunting regulations for three-year periods. Objections were received from some agencies where a three-year cycle would not coincide with their internal regulatory processes. To accommodate those concerns, EC now is proposing a two-year approach that would match better with the processes of other agencies.

Proposed option

EC is proposing to move to a two-year regulatory cycle in replacement of its annual process beginning with the 2014–2015 hunting season.

If the proposal is adopted, the first new two-year stabilized hunting regulations would begin with the 2014–2015 hunting season and end with the 2015–2016 hunting season. Regulatory proposals submitted in December 2013, if approved, would be in place starting in September 2014 and remain in effect through fall 2015 inclusively (the same process would establish the special conservation measures for overabundant Snow Geese that would be in place in spring 2015 and spring 2016).

Management of overabundant geese

Conservation issue

Most Snow and Ross’s Goose populations are well above their population objectives (North American Waterfowl Management Plan 2012). This becomes an important conservation issue when the rapid growth and increasing abundance affect the habitats on which they, and other species, depend. This relatively new issue was first highlighted 15 years ago, through comprehensive assessments of the environmental effects of the rapidly growing populations of mid-continent Lesser Snow Geese and Greater Snow Geese. The analyses completed by Canadian and American experts are contained in the reports entitled Arctic Ecosystems in Peril – Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group (Batt 1997) and The Greater Snow Goose – Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group (Batt 1998).

These working groups concluded that the increase in Snow Goose populations was primarily human-induced. Changing farming practices began to supply a reliable, highly nutritious food source for migrating and wintering geese. Combined with the safety found in refuges, the improved nutritional status led to increased survival and higher reproductive rates for Snow Geese. These populations have become so large that they are affecting the plant communities at staging areas and breeding grounds on which they and other species rely. Grazing and grubbing by geese not only permanently removes vegetation, but also changes soil salinity, nitrogen dynamics and moisture levels. The result is the alteration or elimination of the plant communities. Although the Arctic is vast, the areas that support migrating and breeding geese and other companion species are limited in extent, and some areas are likely to become inhospitable for decades. Increasing crop damage is another undesirable consequence of the growing goose populations.

Management response

Initial management efforts focused on mid-continent Lesser Snow Geese and Greater Snow Geese, the populations where there was strong evidence for detrimental effects on habitats. Canada, the United States and Mexico agreed that the habitat damage being caused was a significant conservation issue, and that the populations were overabundant to the detriment of the arctic and sub-arctic ecosystems. Following that declaration, several concurrent management measures were begun to curtail the rapid population growth and reduce population size to a level consistent with the carrying capacity of the habitat. Population models showed that of all the potential management techniques, the most successful approach to control population growth would be to reduce survival rates for adult geese.

Therefore, beginning in 1999, Canada amended the Migratory Birds Regulations and created new tools that could be invoked to help manage overabundant species. These included special conditions under which hunters were encouraged to increase their take for conservation reasons and, in some cases and subject to specific controls, to use exceptional methods and equipment such as electronic calls and bait. The special conservation measures for Snow Geese were implemented in 1999 in selected areas of Quebec and Manitoba, were expanded in 2001 to Saskatchewan and Nunavut, and in 2012 into south-eastern Ontario. The dates and locations of application of these special conservation measures were determined in consultation with the provincial governments, other organizations and local communities.

Effectiveness of special measures

Evaluations showed that success of the special conservation measures to date has been mixed. In the case of Greater Snow Geese, the special conservation measures were successful in reducing the annual survival rate for adults from about 83% to about 72.5% (Calvert and Gauthier 2005). The growth of the population was stopped, but the special measures have not succeeded in reducing the size of the population, which appears stabilized at about 1 million birds in spring (Lefebvre 2012). Models showed that without the special take by hunters in spring, the population would begin to grow rapidly once more (Gauthier and Reed 2007).

For mid-continent Lesser Snow Geese, the evaluation concluded that the population has continued to grow, although perhaps at a reduced rate (Leafloor et al. 2012). It also concluded that while the annual harvest increased as a result of the conservation measures, it failed to reduce the size of the population. It was apparent that measures invoked to date have not been successful and that other measures would be required if population control were deemed essential. The report recommended that special conservation measures be maintained, and that additional measures to increase harvest be sought.

The evaluation report also suggested that the conditions for overabundance designation are being met by Ross’s Geese, and predicted that continued growth and expansion of Lesser Snow Goose populations was especially likely in the central and western Arctic of Canada (Leafloor et al. 2012). The CWS is now considering designating the Lesser Snow Geese nesting in the western Arctic and Ross’s Geese as overabundant, as outlined in the following sections of this report.

Notice of intent to consider designation of Western Arctic Lesser Snow Geese as overabundant

A notice of intent is hereby given that designating the western Arctic population of Lesser Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) as overabundant is under consideration. Should the CWS decide to proceed with the designation following the initial consultation process taking place now a proposal will be published in fall 2013 in the CWS Regulatory Reports.

An overabundant population is one for which the rate of population growth has resulted in, or will result in, a population whose abundance directly threatens the conservation of migratory birds (themselves or others) or their habitats, or is injurious to or threatens agricultural, environmental or other similar interests.

Experience has shown that serious habitat loss from the destructive foraging activities of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross’s Geese occurred in parallel with very rapid population growth in the central and eastern Arctic (Batt 1997). Some localized habitat damage has already occurred on Banks Island from the foraging activities of western Arctic Snow Geese (Hines et al. 2010). If the western Arctic population continues to increase at the present rate, the negative impacts to habitat and other species are predicted to expand.

The western Arctic population breeds primarily on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, with smaller breeding colonies on the mainland of the Northwest Territories and Alaska. The population migrates mainly through Alberta and western Saskatchewan in spring and autumn. The majority of birds winter in the Pacific Flyway, mostly in California where they mix with the Wrangel Island population of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross’s Geese. Some birds also winter in the western Central Flyway, where they mix with mid-continent Snow Geese.

Western Arctic Snow Geese are already well above the spring population objective of 200 000 birds (North American Waterfowl Management Plan 2012). Photographic surveys of the nesting colonies indicate that the number of nesting birds has grown from about 171 000 adults in 1976 to about 500 000 adults in recent years (Kerbes et al. 1999; Hines et al. 2010; Canadian Wildlife Service, unpubl. data). The fall estimate of western Arctic/Wrangel Island Snow Geese in the Pacific Flyway was over 1 million birds in 2011; this has increased an average of 6% per year from 2003 to present (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2012). Increases also have been observed in the western Central Flyway population of Snow Geese (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2012).

Based on band return data, adults from the western Arctic population have an 85% chance of surviving from one year to the next (Canadian Wildlife Service, unpubl. data). This survival rate is high and similar to estimates of other increasing white goose populations. Recent recovery rates for banded adult birds were only 2–3%, suggesting that non-hunting mortality is currently more important than hunting mortality (Canadian Wildlife Service, unpubl. data). Increased survival is thought to be mainly due to increased agricultural food supplies, increased use of refuges during migration and winter, and reduced harvest rates by hunters (Abraham et al. 1996; Abraham and Jefferies 1997).

The western Arctic population is showing a pattern of rapid population growth similar to that which has been observed in other populations of Snow Geese and Ross’s Geese. For this reason, it is important to consider implementation of special conservation measures, such as spring harvest, before the western Arctic population reaches a level that cannot be controlled through increased harvest by hunters. Similar efforts to stabilize Greater Snow Goose numbers in eastern North America were successful because the population was still small enough that it could be controlled through increased harvest (Reed and Calvert 2007). Based on experience with the mid-continent population of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross’s Geese, it is likely easier to recover goose populations that reach low levels than to reduce them after they experience runaway growth (Leafloor et al. 2012). It may still be possible to stabilize the western Arctic population if liberalized harvest measures are implemented soon. Designation of the western Arctic population as overabundant would provide tools to liberalize harvest under special conservation measures such as spring harvest, use of electronic calls or baiting.

Notice of intent to consider designation of Ross’s Geese as overabundant

A notice of intent is hereby given that designating the Ross’s Goose (Chen rossii) as overabundant is under consideration. Should CWS decide to proceed with the designation following the initial consultation process taking place now a proposal will be published in fall 2013 in the CWS Regulatory Reports.

An overabundant population is one for which the rate of population growth has resulted in, or will result in, a population whose abundance directly threatens the conservation of migratory birds (themselves or others) or their habitats, or is injurious to or threatens agricultural, environmental or other similar interests.

Following publication of the Ecosystems in Peril report (Batt 1997), unprecedented management actions were initiated in 1999 to reduce damage caused to arctic and subarctic ecosystems by the foraging activities of increasing numbers of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens) and Ross’s Geese (Chen rossii; Batt 1997; Moser 2001). Most of these actions were aimed at reducing survival of adult geese through increased harvest by hunters throughout the range of the mid-continent population, which was thought to be the most efficient means of reducing population size (Rockwell et al. 1997). Hunting regulations were liberalized during regular seasons, traditional hunting restrictions (e.g., prohibition on use of electronic calls, requirement for plugged shotguns, bag and possession limits) were relaxed or removed to promote increased harvest, and habitat management regimes on some refuges were altered to increase exposure of the birds to hunting outside of refuge areas. Additional amendments to the Migratory Birds Regulations in Canada and the United States were made to allow conservation harvests of such overabundant species outside of hunting seasons.

Though most attention was focused on overabundance of Lesser Snow Geese, Ross’s Geese were designated as overabundant in the United States in 1999, and have been included in regulations allowing spring conservation harvests there ever since. In Canada, a court decision in 1999 determined that overabundance regulations could not be applied to Ross’s Geese because it had not been demonstrated that they were contributing to the habitat damage.

It is now clear that Ross’s Geese contribute to habitat degradation on nesting and staging areas where they occur in large numbers (Alisauskas et al. 2006b, Abraham et al. 2012). Like Lesser Snow Geese, Ross’s Geese grub during nest building and during spring staging, when a large portion of their diet is made up of the roots and rhizomes of sedges and grasses (Ryder and Alisauskas 1995). Alisauskas et al. (2006b) found that vegetative cover was removed in areas occupied by nesting Ross’s Geese, resulting in exposure of mineral substrate and peat. This led to reduced vegetative species richness that worsened over time, particularly in low-lying habitats preferred by Ross’s Geese for nesting. Reduced graminoid abundance caused by foraging of geese has also led to dramatic declines in small mammal abundance around dense nesting colonies (Samelius and Alisauskas 2009). Didiuk et al. (2001) suggested that use by Ross’s Geese of nesting areas previously degraded by Lesser Snow Geese (e.g., on the west coast of Hudson Bay) may slow recovery of those areas due to the ongoing effects of foraging and nest building. The smaller bill morphology of Ross’s Geese may allow them to crop vegetation more closely to the ground than do Lesser Snow Geese, adding to the intensity of grazing.

Ross’s Geese are closely related to Lesser Snow Geese, and co-occur with the latter species throughout the year; their behavioural and morphological similarity has led to harvest management of the two species in aggregate since 1978 (Moser and Duncan 2001). In the mid-1960s, most Ross’s Geese (>90%) nested in the central Arctic of Canada, and wintered in the Central Valley of California (Melinchuk and Ryder 1980). Though comprehensive estimates of population size were not available until recently, photographic surveys of known nesting areas indicated fewer than 100 000 nesting Ross’s Geese in the mid-1960s (Kerbes 1994). The continental population objective for Ross’s Geese has been 100 000 birds since the inception of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan in 1986. By the mid-2000s, Ross’s Geese had expanded their range eastward on both nesting and wintering areas (Alisauskas et al. 2006a), and the population was estimated to number between 1.5–2.5 million adult birds (Alisauskas et al. 2009; 2011, 2012), despite efforts to stop the growth of the population through increased harvest by hunters.

Alisauskas et al. (2006a) analyzed hunter recoveries of Ross’s Geese captured and marked in the Queen Maud Gulf region of the central Canadian Arctic, and found that survival of adults had declined during the period 1994–2000, reaching a low of approximately 0.80, apparently in response to concurrent increases in harvest. The authors noted, however, that during this same time period, the Ross’s Goose population at one of the largest known breeding colonies in the Queen Maud Gulf region had shown sustained growth, suggesting that an adult survival rate of 0.80 was unlikely to have negative consequence for continental Ross’s Goose populations. Since 2001 (the last year that Alisauskas et al. [2006a] considered), continental harvest of adult Ross’s Geese has apparently stabilized, and harvest rates (the annual proportion of the adult population harvested by hunters) have declined to only about 2–3% (Alisauskas et al. 2009, 2012; Dufour et al. 2012). Annual survival of Ross’s Geese declined from 0.897 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.789–0.953) to a low of 0.827 (95% CI = 0.801–0.850) during the period 1989–1997, then increased steadily from 1998 onward, reaching a high of 0.950 (95% CI = 0.899–0.976) in 2009. Notably, this reversal of the survival trajectory occurred in the face of some of the highest annual harvest levels estimated for adult Ross’s Geese since 1989 (Alisauskas et al. 2012).

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Ross’s Goose populations have continued to grow, both in the central Arctic and at the continental level (Alisauskas et al. 2009, 2012). Collectively, these observations suggest that, like Snow Geese, increases in harvest of Ross’s Geese have been outpaced by concurrent increases in abundance, thereby diminishing the effects of harvest on adult survival (Dufour et al. 2012). In fact, Ross’s Goose numbers have continued to increase at a higher rate than have Lesser Snow Geese since the start of conservation actions in 1999, and continued growth of the Ross’s Goose population is predicted to occur (Alisauskas et al. 2006a; Alisauskas et al. 2012; Dufour et al. 2012). Thus, the environmental damage being caused, with its effects on other species and ecosystem structure and function, is expected to continue to increase.

Designation of Ross’s Geese as overabundant is therefore being considered by the CWS and would provide tools to liberalize harvest under special conservation measures such as spring harvest, use of electronic calls or baiting.

Hunting regulations for Snow Geese for the 2013–2014 season

The special conservation measures for Snow Geese that will be effect in fall 2013 and spring 2014 are posted on the EC Nature website: Overabundant Species: Special Conservation Measures for Snow Geese - Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Nunavut, and are shown in Appendix A of this report.

The changes made to the regulations for Snow Geese are as follows:

  • Possession limits in Quebec and Ontario have been removed;
  • The size of a spring no-hunting zone near Montmagny in Quebec has been reduced;
  • Length of the spring special conservation season in Manitoba has been extended by two weeks. The season will open on March 14 rather than April 1. This measure will be in effect in spring 2014; and
  • Restrictions that were in place on decoy types used with electronic Snow Goose call recordings have been lifted in Quebec and Ontario.

See the section below for more detail about these new regulations.

Hunting regulations for the 2013-2014 season

Many comments were received through the consultation period. Overall, provincial governments as well as hunter associations and individual hunters were supportive of the amendments to the migratory game bird regulations for the 2013–2014 season.

Several letters and emails were received in the Atlantic provinces expressing support for all of the proposals, especially those regarding the liberalization of the Black Duck harvest. However, several hunters on Prince Edward Island were concerned about the potential vulnerability of locally wintering Black Ducks during January when their distribution may be restricted to a few areas of open water. Hunters also suggested that there may be some difficulty in retrieving ducks during this period. In New Brunswick, some hunters expressed similar concerns about vulnerability of ducks due to ice, and were unconvinced that current population levels could sustain the more liberal harvest afforded by the January season. In response to these concerns, EC reduced the season length for Black Duck from the original proposal. Thus, the January portion of the season in the original proposal was removed for Prince Edward Island as well as in Zone 2 in New Brunswick. The open season for ducks in Nova Scotia was reduced by one week to achieve some degree of alignment with the seasons in Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. EC held consultation sessions in Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick regarding the updated recommendations for Black Duck, and the majority of stakeholders supported the changes.

While EC and the province of Alberta primarily received support for a Sandhill Crane hunting season, some stakeholder concerns were raised about the possible impact on the population and about perceived risks of misidentification in taking Whooping Cranes while hunting Sandhill Cranes. The Province of Alberta informed Environment Canada that it would prefer to conduct further consultations with stakeholders regarding the proposal to introduce a Sandhill Crane hunting season. Consequently, Environment Canada will not proceed with Sandhill Crane hunting in Alberta for the 2013-2014 season.

The regulations in effect for 2013–2014 are shown in Appendix A (Migratory Birds Hunting Regulations Summaries). The amendments were approved by the Governor-in-Council on June 6, 2013.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Implementation of the International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck

An International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck was adopted in July 2012 by the CWS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Thestrategy allows additional harvest opportunity for American Black Ducks in Canada for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

  • American Black Duck daily bag limits in Newfoundland

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck has been implemented in Newfoundland through prescribed regulatory packages. A liberal regime will be in effect for the 2013–2014 hunting season; 6 American Black Ducks in the daily bag (an increase from 4 to 6) for the first part of the hunting season (September 7 to November 28, 2013). Due to an increase in harvest susceptibility later in the season, a restriction of 4 Black Ducks allowed in the daily bag will be in effect for the last 30 days of the season (November 29 to December 28, 2013 inclusive). Similar measures have also been implemented in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

  • Harmonization of season dates in Labrador

Season opening dates have been harmonized across Labrador for ducks (other than Harlequin Ducks and eiders), geese and snipe, and the season length has been extended by 1 week (total of 106 days). Thus, the opening season date in fall 2013 will be the first Saturday in September and the closing date the third Saturday in December for all Labrador zones.

Increasing the possession limit to three times the daily bag limit for some migratory game birds in Newfoundland and Labrador

Possession limits for ducks (other than mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, Harlequin Ducks, eiders and scoters) have been liberalized in Newfoundland and Labrador. Possession limits increased from two to three times the daily bag limit. Similar measures have also been implemented in Prince Edward, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Possession limit liberalizations were instituted in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and in 2010, in Quebec in 2011 and in British Columbia in 2012.

Waterfowler Heritage Days in Labrador

Beginning in September 2013, a Waterfowler Heritage Day will be held across Labrador. Waterfowler Heritage Days provide young hunters under the age of majority with the opportunity to practice hunting and outdoor skills, learn about wildlife conservation, and reinforce safety training in a structured, supervised environment. Waterfowler Heritage Days are currently in effect in all provinces in Canada.

Prince Edward Island

Implementation of the International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck was adopted in July 2012 by the CWS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Thestrategy allows additional harvest opportunity for American Black Ducks in Canada for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

  • American Black Duck daily bag limits

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck has been implemented in Prince Edward Island through prescribed regulatory packages. A liberal regime will be in effect for the 2013–2014 hunting season; 6 American Black Ducks in the daily bag (an increase from 4 to 6) for the first part of the hunting season (October 1 to December 14, 2013). Due to an increase in harvest susceptibility later in the season, a restriction of 4 American Black Duck/Mallard hybrids or 4 American Black Ducks allowed in the daily bag will be in effect for the period beginning on December 1 and ending on December 31, 2013, inclusive. Similar measures have also been implemented for Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

  • Increasing the season length

The length of the regular hunting season for ducks (other than Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, Harlequin Ducks, eiders and scoters) and snipe has been increased by two weeks. Duck seasons will open on October 1 and close on December 31. Similar measures were also implemented in Labrador, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

Increasing the season length for Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, eiders and scoters

The season length for Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, eiders and scoters was increased slightly to allow a hunting season opening date (which will be on October 1) coincident with that for other duck species (see Implementation of the International Harvest Strategy for American Black). Season closing dates will remain December 31.

Increasing the possession limit to three times the daily bag limit for some migratory game birds

Possession limits for ducks (other than Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, Harlequin Ducks, eiders and scoters) have been liberalized in Prince Edward Island. Possession limits increased from two to three times the daily bag limit. Similar measures were also implemented in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Possession limit liberalizations were instituted in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta in 2010, in Quebec in 2011, and in British Columbia in 2012.

Increasing opportunities to harvest Canada Geese

Spring surveys conducted annually to estimate numbers of waterfowl breeding in the Maritime provinces have identified a significant increase in abundance of temperate-breeding Canada Geese over the past 15 years. It is recognized that temperate-breeding Canada Geese cause conflicts with humans. The following measures were implemented to help reduce nuisance and crop depredation problems associated with temperate-breeding Canada Geese by allowing an increase in harvest pressure. While allowing this additional harvest opportunity on temperate-breeding Canada Geese, the regulations will continue to afford an appropriate level of protection to migrant Canada Geese.

  • Establishment of an early hunting season

An early (September) Canada Goose season has been established on Prince Edward Island for the 2013–2014 hunting season. This early season will occur before most migrant geese arrive on Prince Edward Island and as such will increase harvest pressure on locally breeding geese only. Three additional geese could be taken daily during the early September Canada Goose season only; possession limits for geese would remain fixed at 16. The September Canada Goose season will open on the Tuesday following Labour Day and continue for 14 consecutive days (inclusive of opening day).

Similar seasons have been in place in other provinces in Canada (including Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) and have been considered at least partially effective in controlling population growth for temperate-breeding Canada Geese.

  • Extending the regular hunting season

The regular goose season has been extended to the end of December to allow hunters to take advantage of additional days afield while appropriately managing harvest on migrant Canada Geese. Bag limits during the October through December portion of the goose season will be 5 geese daily until November 14, after which the bag limits will be reduced to three geese daily for the remainder of the season.

Nova Scotia

Implementation of the International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck was adopted in July 2012 by the CWS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Thestrategy allows additional harvest opportunity for American Black Ducks in Canada for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

  • American Black Duck daily bag limits

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck was implemented in Nova Scotia through prescribed regulatory packages. A liberal regime will be in effect for the 2013–2014 hunting season; 6 American Black Ducks in the daily bag (an increase from 4 to 6) for the first part of the hunting season (October 1 to November 30 in Zone 1, and October 1 to December 7 in zones 2 and 3). Due to an increase in harvest susceptibility later in the season, a restriction of 4 black ducks allowed in the daily bag will be in effect from December 1 to January 7 in Zone 1, and December 8 to January 14 in zones 2 and 3. Similar measures were also implemented in Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick.

  • Increasing the season length

The season length for ducks (other than Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, Harlequin Ducks, eiders and scoters) and snipe has been increased. Duck seasons in Zone 1 will open on October 1 and close on January 7, whereas duck season in zones 2 and 3 will open on October 8 and close on January 14. Similar measures have also been implemented in Labrador, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick.

Increasing season length for Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, eiders and scoters

The season length for Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, eiders and scoters has been increased to allow hunting season opening and closing dates (Zone 1: October 1 to January 7; zones 2 and 3: October 8 to January 14) that are coincident with those for other duck species (see Implementation of the International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck).

Increasing the possession limit to three times the daily bag limit for some migratory game birds

Possession limits for ducks (other than Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, Harlequin Ducks, eiders and scoters) have been liberalized in Nova Scotia. Possession limits increased from two to three times the daily bag limit. Similar measures were also implemented in Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. Possession limit liberalizations were instituted in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta in 2010, in Quebec in 2011 and in British Columbia in 2012.

Canada Goose possession limit

The possession limit has been increased from 10 to 16 for the entire duration of the open season for Canada Geese in order to allow hunters additional time to fully utilize harvested birds taken in the early September season.

New Brunswick

Implementation of the International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck was adopted in July 2012 by the CWS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Thestrategy allows additional harvest opportunity for American Black Ducks in Canada for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

  • American Black Duck daily bag limits

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck has been implemented in New Brunswick through prescribed regulatory packages. A liberal regime will be in effect for the 2013–2014 hunting season; 6 American Black Ducks in the daily bag (an increase from 4 to 6) for the first part of the hunting season (October 15 to December 14 in Zone 1, and October 1 to November 30 in Zone 2). Due to an increase in harvest susceptibility later in the season, a reduction to 4 black ducks allowed in the daily bag will be effective for the remainder of the season (Zone 1: December 15 to January 14, and Zone 2: December 1 to January 14). Similar measures were also implemented in Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia.

  • Increasing season length

The season length for ducks (other than Harlequin Ducks, Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, eiders and scoters), geese (other than Canada Geese and Cackling Geese) and snipe has been increased during the regular duck season. The seasons will open on October 15 and close on January 14 in Zone 1, whereas the seasons will open on October 1 and close on December 31 in Zone 2. Similar measures were also implemented in Labrador, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

Increasing the possession limit to three times the daily bag limit for some migratory game birds

Possession limits for ducks (other than Common and Red-breasted Mergansers, Long-tailed Ducks, Harlequin Ducks, eiders and scoters) have been liberalized in New Brunswick. Possession limits increased from two to three times the daily bag limit. Similar measures were also implemented in Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Possession limit liberalizations were instituted in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta in 2010, in Quebec in 2011 and in British Columbia in 2012.

Canada Goose possession limit

The possession limit has been increased from 10 to 16 for the entire duration of the open season for Canada Geese in order to allow hunters additional time to fully utilize harvested birds taken in the early September season.

Quebec

Hunting season length for most migratory game birds

The number of open season days for most migratory game bird species has been increased to 107, the maximum number allowed under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 (including Waterfowler Heritage Days). This change applies to all hunting districts in Quebec except District G (county of Magdalen Islands). This measure will provide hunters with additional opportunity to hunt at the end of the hunting season without significantly increasing the number of harvested migratory birds.

Implementation of the International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck was adopted in July 2012 by the CWS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This strategy allows additional harvest opportunity for American Black Ducks in Canada for the 2013–2014 hunting season. A liberal regime will be in effect in Quebec: 6 American Black Ducks in the daily bag limit (an increase from 4 to 6) and a possession limit of 18 (increase from 8 to 18) for all hunting districts in Quebec except for a sector bordering Ontario. The excluded zone includes all of the area south of Route 148 and west of Highway 15. This will harmonize regulations in Quebec with those in Ontario and will protect the southwestern Quebec American Black Duck population.

Snow Geese

  • Removing restrictions on decoy types used with electronic Snow Goose recordings

The requirement to use only blue or white phase Snow Goose decoys when electronic Snow Goose recordings are being used was lifted. Decoy restrictions were implemented formerly due to concern about the potential vulnerability of Canada Geese to electronic Snow Goose recordings; however, research has since shown that Canada Geese are less vulnerable to electronic recordings of Snow Geese than to traditional hunting methods (Caswell et al. 2003). Removal of this restriction will allow hunters to target both Canada and Snow Geese during the same hunt in fall (Canada Geese may not be hunted in spring), which would provide additional opportunity to manage overabundant Snow Geese through hunting.

  • Removing the possession limit

The possession limit for Snow Geese has been removed. This measure may increase the harvest of an overabundant species that is above population objectives while maintaining good use of harvested birds.

  • Increasing opportunity to harvest Snow Geese

Some agricultural fields were excluded from a spring no-hunting zone near Montmagny in order to provide additional opportunity to manage overabundant Snow Geese.

Canada Geese

The possession limit for Canada Geese has been removed. This measure is intended to increase the harvest of temperate-breeding Canada Geese.

Geographic coordinates of the Nicolet no-hunting zone

The geographic coordinates of the Nicolet no-hunting zone were modified to correct an error in the text of the regulations.

Updating species names to current nomenclature

The name "Common Moorhen" has been changed to "Common Gallinule" to reflect a recent decision made by the American Ornithologists' Union.

Ontario

Implementation of the International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck

The International Harvest Strategy for American Black Duck was adopted in July 2012 by CWS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This strategy allows additional harvest opportunity for American Black Ducks in Canada for the 2013–2014 hunting season. A liberal regime will be in effect in Ontario; 107-day hunting season in all Hunting Districts, a daily bag limit of 4 Black Ducks in the Hudson-James Bay, Northern and Central Hunting Districts (increase from 2 to 4) and a daily bag limit of 2 Black Ducks in the Southern Hunting District (increase from 1 to 2). Opening and closing dates will be the same as for other duck species in Ontario.

Canada and Cackling Geese

  • Removing restrictions on the daily bag limit

The daily bag limit for Canada and Cackling Geese has been increased from 8 to 10 birds during the early and late seasons in Provincial Wildlife Management Units (WMUs) 83 and 86. This change will harmonize Canada Goose hunting regulations in these WMUs with the majority of other WMUs in the Southern Hunting District and may result in an increase in the harvest of temperate-breeding Canada Geese. Restrictions on the daily bag limit for Canada Geese in WMUs 83 and 86 were originally established to limit harvest of Southern James Bay Population (SJBP) Canada Geese. Recent analyses of band recovery data indicate that the harvest of SJBP Canada Geese in these WMUs is minimal and no greater than that in neighbouring WMUs without special bag limit restrictions. This may help to maintain the Ontario temperate-breeding population of Canada Geese at a desired level. It should be noted that daily bag limit restrictions remain unchanged for WMUs 82, 84, 85, 93 and 94.

  • Removing the possession limit

The possession limit for Canada and Cackling Geese has been removed from all WMUs in Ontario to increase opportunities for hunters who might otherwise be forced to stop hunting or to gift their birds in order to continue hunting while maintaining good use of harvested birds. This measure may also result in an increase in the harvest of temperate-breeding Canada Geese in Ontario, a species above population objectives and that causes conflicts with humans.

Snow Geese

  • Removing the possession limit

The possession limit for Snow Geese has been removed in all hunting districts. This measure may increase the harvest of an overabundant species that is above population objectives while maintaining good use of harvested birds.

  • Removing restrictions on decoy types used with electronic Snow Goose recordings

The requirement to use only blue or white phase Snow Goose decoys when electronic Snow Goose recordings are being used was lifted in WMU 65 in Eastern Ontario (the only WMU where the special conservation measures apply). Decoy restrictions were implemented previously due to concern about the potential vulnerability of Canada Geese to electronic Snow Goose recordings; however, research has since shown that Canada Geese are less vulnerable to electronic recordings of Snow Geese than to traditional hunting methods (Caswell et al. 2003). Removal of this restriction will allow hunters to target both Canada and Snow geese during the same hunt in fall (Canada Geese may not be hunted in spring), which would provide additional opportunity to manage overabundant Snow Geese through hunting.

Establishing a hunting season for Mourning Dove

  • Season dates and bag and possession limits

A new hunting season for Mourning Doves in the Central and Southern Hunting Districts will open in Ontario in early September 2013. The Mourning Dove season will follow season length and daily bag limit as prescribed in the U.S. Eastern Management Unit for doves. Thus, the daily bag limit will be 15 and the season length will be 70 days. The possession limit will be three times the daily bag limit as for other migratory game bird species in Ontario. The season will commence on the same day as the early Canada Goose hunting season in the Central and Southern Hunting Districts.

A 2011 report completed by the CWS – Ontario Region evaluating breeding population status and harvest potential of Mourning Doves determined that Mourning Doves could be hunted sustainably in Ontario.

  • Non-toxic shot requirement

Hunting Mourning Doves in Ontario will require the use of non-toxic shots.

Updating species names to current nomenclature

The name "Common Moorhen" was changed to "Common Gallinule" to reflect a recent decision made by the American Ornithologists' Union.

Manitoba

Season opening date

The hunting season in Game Bird Hunting Zones (GBHZs) 2, 3 and 4 will open earlier in 2013–2014 (change from September 8 to September 1) for residents of Canada. This change will create consistency in opening dates for migratory game birds in Manitoba and across the Prairie provinces, and will provide more opportunity for hunters to experience waterfowl hunting during mild weather.

Extending Waterfowler Heritage Days throughout Manitoba

Waterfowler Heritage Days have been extended throughout the province. They have been in effect in Game Bird Hunting Zones (GBHZs) 2, 3 and 4, and will be offered in GBHZ 1 from September 1 to September 7. This change will provide young hunters under the age of majority with a province-wide opportunity to practice hunting and outdoor skills, learn about wildlife conservation, and reinforce safety training in a structured, supervised environment. Licensed adult hunters who serve as mentors have an opportunity to pass on their considerable skills and knowledge by offering guidance and advice to younger hunters. Waterfowler Heritage Days are in effect in all provinces in Canada.

Increasing the daily bag limit for Canada and Cackling Geese

The daily bag limit for Canada and Cackling geese has been increased from 8 to 12 from September 1 to September 23 in Game Hunting Area 38. However, from September 24 to November 30, the bag limit will revert to 8 per day, 24 in possession.

Temperate-breeding Canada Geese continue to undergo rapid population growth throughout southern Manitoba and particularly in the City of Winnipeg. A relatively small window of opportunity exists for a targeted harvest of the temperate-breeding geese prior to the arrival of arctic-nesting geese. A higher bag limit early in the season will maximize opportunity to harvest geese that nest in and around Winnipeg.

Snow Goose and Ross’s Goose

The afternoon restriction on hunting Snow or Ross’s geese by non-residents of Canada has been lifted. From now on, non-residents may hunt in Game Bird Hunting Zone 4 and Game Hunting Areas 13A, 14, 14A, part of 16, 18, 18A–C, 19, 19A, 19B, 20, 21A, 23A, 25 from one-half hour before sunrise and one-half hour after sunset. This measure will provide additional opportunity to manage overabundant Snow Geese, and may contribute to reduce the growth of the population, through hunting.

Snow Goose – extending the special conservation season length beginning in spring 2014

The spring special conservation season for Snow Geese in Game Bird Hunting Zones 2, 3 and 4 will open earlier in 2014; i.e. on March 15 rather than on April 1. In early springs, Snow Geese arrive prior to April 1. Thus, this measure will provide additional opportunity to manage this overabundant species, and contribute to reducing the growth of the population, through hunting, particularly in early springs.

Saskatchewan

Establishing Waterfowler Heritage Days

Waterfowler Heritage Days have been established across Saskatchewan, beginning with the 2013-2014 season. They will occur during the Labour Day long weekend in September and the Thanksgiving long weekend in October. This change will provide young hunters under the age of majority with the opportunity to practice hunting and outdoor skills, learn about wildlife conservation, and reinforce safety training in a structured, supervised environment. Licensed adult hunters who serve as mentors have an opportunity to pass on their considerable skills and knowledge by offering guidance and advice to younger hunters. Waterfowler Heritage Days are currently in all provinces in Canada.

Alberta

Establishing restrictions on daily bag and possession limits for non-residents of Canada for Barrow’s and Common Goldeneye

The bag limit for Barrow’s and Common Goldeneye has been reduced from 8 to 2 per day, from 24 to 6 in possession for non-residents of Canada. A small subset of lakes within Alberta are of high importance to the Western (intermountain) population of Barrow’s Goldeneye. Concentrations of up to 10% of this population of Barrow’s Goldeneye may occur within a restricted area making the population vulnerable to excessive harvest. It can be difficult to distinguish between Barrow’s and Common Goldeneye, so establishing restrictions on daily bag and possession limits on both species for non-residents of Canada will reduce the risk of unsustainable harvest of Barrow’s Goldeneyes.

British Columbia

No regulatory changes were made for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

Yukon Territory

No regulatory changes were made for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

Northwest Territories

No regulatory changes were made for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

Nunavut

No regulatory changes were made for the 2013–2014 hunting season.

Please report bird bands

The North American Bird Banding Program relies on the public to report bird bands to our office. Reporting bird bands helps scientists and wildlife managers continue to learn about, monitor and conserve our bird populations.

There are three ways to report bands to the Canadian Bird Banding Office: online at www.reportband.gov, by calling toll-free 1-800-327-2263 (1-800-327-BAND), or by writing to:

Bird Banding Office
National Wildlife Research Centre
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1A 0H3
Email: BBO_CWS@ec.gc.ca

By submitting your encounter reports online, you will immediately receive banding data, and you have the option to print your certificate of appreciation at home.

The Web address has replaced the postal address on new bands. The toll-free telephone number remains on bands. Hunters can still expect to find various types of bands on waterfowl, including bands without the Web address or phone number. All bands can be reported online (www.reportband.gov), by phone or by mail.

Updates to the migratory birds regulations

Amendment to Allow for the Temporary Possession of Migratory Birds for Disease Testing

The Government of Canada wants to inform the public of a variance of the application of paragraph 6(b) of the Migratory Birds Regulations, issued under the authority of s. 36 of the same regulations, to allow for the temporary possession of found dead migratory birds, which is in effect until September 2013. This variance order will be extended to September 2014.

As public participation in the study of dead migratory birds is necessary to help conduct surveys on avian viruses, it is permitted to temporarily possess dead migratory birds, to allow for swift delivery of such birds to provincial or territorial authorities for analysis. The Government of Canada is responsible, under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, to ensure that migratory birds are protected and conserved, and testing dead birds is believed to be the most effective method available for the detection of avian viruses.

What you need to do if you find a dead migratory bird:

Contact the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre by visiting their website at www.ccwhc.ca or by phoning 1-800-567-2033.

Visit the Public Health Agency of Canada website at www.phac-aspc.gc.ca for guidance on precautions to take when handling wild birds.

For more information on the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994.

Literature cited

Abraham, K. F., R. L. Jefferies, R. F. Rockwell, and C.D. MacInnes. 1996. Why are there so many white geese in North America? Pages 79-92 in Proceedings of the 7th International Waterfowl Symposium, Memphis, TN. J. T. Ratti, ed.

Abraham, K. F., and R. L. Jefferies. 1997. High populations, causes, impacts and implications. Pages 7-72 in Batt, B. D. J. (editor). Arctic Ecosystems in Peril: Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, District of Columbia (D.C.), and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Canada. 126 pp.

Abraham, K. F., R. L. Jefferies, R. T. Alisauskas, and R. F. Rockwell. 2012. Northern wetland ecosystems and their response to high densities of lesser Snow Geese and Ross’s geese. Pages 9-45 in Leafloor, J. O., T. J. Moser, and B. D. J. Batt (editors). Evaluation of special management measures for midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and Ross’s geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario.

Alisauskas, R. T., K. L. Drake, S. M. Slattery, and D. K. Kellett. 2006a. Neckbands, harvest and survival of Ross’s geese from Canada’s central arctic. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:89-100.

Alisauskas, R. T., J. Charlwood, and D. K. Kellett. 2006b. Vegetation correlates of nesting history and density by Ross’s and lesser Snow Geese at Karrak Lake, Nunavut. Arctic 59:201–210.

Alisauskas, R. T., K. L. Drake, and J. D. Nichols. 2009. Filling a void: abundance estimation of North American populations of arctic geese using hunter recoveries. In D. L. Thomson, E. G. Cooch, and M. J. Conroy, editors. Modeling demographic processes in marked populations. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 3:463–489.

Alisauskas, R. T., R. F. Rockwell, K. W. Dufour, E. G. Cooch, G. Zimmerman, K. L. Drake, J. O. Leafloor, T. J. Moser, E. T. Reed. 2011. Harvest, survival, and abundance of midcontinent lesser Snow Geese relative to population reduction efforts. Wildlife Monographs 179:1-42.

Alisauskas, R. T., J. O. Leafloor, and D. K. Kellett. 2012. Population status of midcontinent Lesser Snow Geese and Ross’s Geese following special conservation measures. Pages 132-177 in Leafloor, J. O., T. J. Moser, and B. D. J. Batt (editors). Evaluation of special management measures for midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and Ross’s geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario.

Batt, B.D.J. (ed.). 1997. Arctic Ecosystems in Peril – Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.,, and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ont.

Batt, B.D.J. (ed.). 1998. The Greater Snow Goose – Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C., and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ont.

Calvert, A.M. and G. Gauthier. 2005. Effects of exceptional conservation measures on survival and seasonal hunting mortality in greater Snow Geese. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:442-252.

Calvert, A.M., G. Gauthier, E.T. Reed, L. Bélanger, J.-F. Gobeil, M. Huang, J. Lefebvre and A. Reed. 2007. Present status of the population and evaluation of the effects of the special conservation measures in Reed, E.T., and A.M. Calvert (eds.). Evaluation of the special conservation measures for Greater Snow Geese: Report of the Greater Snow Goose Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Sainte-Foy, Quebec.

Caswell, J.H., A.D. Afton, and F.D. Caswell. 2003. Vulnerability of non-target goose species to hunting with electronic snow goose calls. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(4):1117-1125.

Didiuk, A. B., R. T. Alisauskas, and R. F. Rockwell. 2001. Interaction with arctic and subarctic habitats. Pages 19–32 in T. Moser, editor. The status of Ross’s geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.,, United States of America (USA), and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Dufour, K. W., R. T. Alisauskas, R. F. Rockwell, and E. T. Reed. 2012. Temporal variation in survival and productivity of midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and survival of Ross’s geese and its relation to population reduction efforts. Pages 95-131 in Leafloor,J. O., T. J. Moser, and B. D. J. Batt (eds.). Evaluation of special management measures for midcontinent lesser Snow Geese and Ross’s geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario.

Gauthier, G., and E.T. Reed. 2007. Projected growth rate of the Greater Snow Goose population under alternative harvest scenarios in Reed, E.T., and A.M. Calvert (eds.). Evaluation of the special conservation measures for Greater Snow Geese: Report of the Greater Snow Goose Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Sainte-Foy, Quebec.

Hines, J.E., P.B. Latour, and C.S. Machtans. 2010. The effects on lowland habitat, breeding shorebirds and songbirds in the Banks Island Migratory Bird Sancturay Number 1 by the growing colony of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens). Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 118. Environment Canada, Ottawa.

Kerbes, R. H. 1994. Colonies and numbers of Ross’ geese and lesser Snow Geese in the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 81.

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Lefebvre, J. 2012. Population estimate for Spring Population of Greater Snow Goose in southern Quebec. Canadian Wildlife Service. Environment Canada. July 2012.

Melinchuk, R., and J. P. Ryder. 1980. The distribution, fall migration routes and survival of Ross’s geese. Wildfowl 31:161–171.

Moser, T. J. 2001. The status of Ross’s geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.,, USA, and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Moser, T. J., and D. C. Duncan. 2001. Harvest of Ross’s geese. Pages 43–54 in T. J. Moser, editor. The status of Ross’s geese. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.,, USA, and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

North American Waterfowl Management Plan, Plan Committee. 2012. North American Waterfowl Management Plan 2012: People Conserving Waterfowl and Wetlands. Canadian Wildlife Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales. 48 pp.

Ryder, J.P. and R.T. Alisauskas. 1995. Ross’ goose. Number 162 in A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The Birds of North America. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and the American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.,

Rockwell, R.F., E. Cooch, and S. Brault. 1997. Part III – Dynamics of the mid-continent population of lesser Snow Geese: Projected impacts of reductions in survival and fertility on population growth rates. Pages 73–100 in B.D.J. Batt, ed., Arctic Ecosystems in Peril: Report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Arctic Goose Joint Venture Special Publication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.,, and Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario.

Samelius, G. and R.T. Alisauskas. 2009. Habitat alteration by geese at a large arctic goose colony: consequences for lemmings and voles. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87:95-101.

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Wildlife Habitat Canada. 2013. Wildlife Habitat Canada - Update on Activities, April 2013.

Appendix A - 2013-2014 Migratory birds hunting regulations summaries by province and territory

Summaries are available on the EC Nature national website.

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