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Black carbon (BC) is a short-lived, small aerosol (or airborne) particle linked to both climate warming and adverse health effects. Black carbon emissions have recently become a focus of attention due to their effects on the near-term warming of the atmosphere and on human health. Reducing black carbon emissions is of particular interest in polar regions, such as the Arctic, which are especially sensitive to the effects of black carbon.

Established in 2016, the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change is a comprehensive plan to reduce emissions across all sectors of Canada’s economy, as well as to stimulate clean economic growth, and build resilience to the impacts of climate change, which sets Canada on a firm path towards achieving our Paris Agreement emissions targets. Meeting those targets require taking action on long-lived GHGs such as carbon dioxide and short-lived climate forcers such as methane, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon.

During Canada’s chairmanship of the Arctic Council (2013–2015), the Council promoted actions to achieve enhanced reductions of black carbon and methane emissions. A framework for action was agreed to in April 2015 that included a commitment from all Arctic states to develop and improve emission inventories for black carbon using, where possible, relevant guidelines from the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Environment ministers from Arctic states had previously agreed that these inventories could be voluntarily submitted under the CLRTAP. This report presents the results of Canada’s third annual inventory of black carbon emissions. Emissions in this inventory are grouped according to the following sources:Footnote 1

  • Ore and Mineral Industries
  • Oil and Gas Industry
  • Electric Power Generation (Utilities)
  • Manufacturing
  • Transportation and Mobile Equipment
  • Agriculture
  • Commercial / Residential / Institutional

In 2015, approximately 38 kilotonnes (kt) of black carbon were emitted in Canada, which is less than the revised 2014 emissions of 41 kt (Table ES–1). Transportation and mobile equipment are by far the most important sources of black carbon in Canada, accounting for 22 kt (57.3%) of total emissions in 2015. Among transportation and mobile equipment, off-road diesel engines account for 11 kt (29.7% of the total emissions). The other large source in this category is diesel engines used for on-road transport, which account for 5.7 kt (14.9%) of total emissions.

Commercial/Residential/Institutional sources are the second-largest contributor to black carbon emissions in Canada, representing emissions of 12.6 kt, or 33.0% of total emissions in 2015. Home firewood burning is the largest source in this category, representing 11.5 kt of emissions, or 30.1% of total 2015 emissions. Wood is an abundant fuel in Canada; it is estimated that 14 million tonnes of wood are burned annually in Canadian homes. More information on the estimation methods can be found in Section 2.2.

The sources included in this third annual inventory are estimated to account for at least 90% of anthropogenic black carbon emissions. Work will continue to improve the completeness and accuracy of the inventory, quantifying the emissions that are not captured yet, and refining base data and estimation techniques.

All emissions reported in this inventory are from anthropogenic (human) sources. Natural sources of black carbon, such as wildfires, are not included.

Table ES-1: Canadian black carbon emissions by sector (2013-2015) (tonnes)
SourceSectorSubsectorBlack carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Total42,10740,96038,244
Ore and Mineral IndustriesNot applicableNot applicable502462449
Ore and Mineral IndustriesAluminium IndustryNot applicable514637
Ore and Mineral IndustriesCement and Concrete IndustryNot applicable211821
Ore and Mineral IndustriesFoundriesNot applicable0.0600.0600.050
Ore and Mineral IndustriesMining and Rock QuarryingNot applicable431398391
Oil and Gas IndustryNot applicableNot applicable2,4022,8512,556
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryNot applicable2,4022,8512,556
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryBitumen and Heavy Oil Upgrading475811526
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryDisposal and Waste Treatment5.86.35.2
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryHeavy Crude Oil Cold Production115116114
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryLight Medium Crude Oil Production738781789
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryNatural Gas Production and Processing765785750
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands In-Situ Extraction and Processing198226244
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands Mining Extraction and Processing354770
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids Storage0.670.540.63
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids Transportation2.22.32.3
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryWell Drilling/Servicing/Testing687654
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Not applicableNot applicable202226241
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)CoalNot applicable375047
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Natural GasNot applicable312725
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)DieselNot applicable103115127
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Other Electric Power GenerationNot applicable323541
ManufacturingNot applicableNot applicable509419434
ManufacturingPulp and Paper IndustryNot applicable277239214
ManufacturingWood ProductsNot applicable233179220
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentNot applicableNot applicable25,77024,29221,929
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentAir TransportationNot applicable676668668
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentMarine TransportationNot applicable2,8132,8131,235
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportNot applicable7,4966,9196,404
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportDiesel6,7076,1725,679
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportGasoline789744722
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportLiquid Petroleum Gas0.600.230.19
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportCompressed Natural Gas0.263.02.8
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportNot applicable12,62711,67411,369
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportDiesel12,11011,13410,833
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportGasoline, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Compressed Natural Gas517540536
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentRail TransportationNot applicable2,1582,2182,253
AgricultureNot applicableNot applicable232424
AgricultureFuel UseNot applicable232424
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalNot applicableNot applicable12,69812,68612,610
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalCommercial and Institutional Fuel CombustionNot applicable832888888
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalConstruction Fuel CombustionNot applicable363838
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningNot applicable11,67911,60111,525
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningFireplaces3,3803,3473,316
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningFurnaces4,1804,1554,131
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningWood Stoves4,1204,0984,078
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalResidential Fuel CombustionNot applicable151160160

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1. Introduction

Black carbon (BC) is a short-lived, small aerosol (or airborne) particle linked to both climate warming and adverse health effects. Black carbon emissions have recently become a focus of attention due to their effects on the near-term warming of the atmosphere and on human health. Reducing black carbon emissions is of particular interest in polar regions, such as the Arctic, which are especially sensitive to the effects of black carbon. When black carbon particles settle on snow and ice, they darken the surface and enhance absorption of solar radiation, thus increasing the rate of melting.

The Paris Agreement lays out a collective goal to limit global average temperature rise to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit that increase to below 1.5 °C. This will require taking action on long-lived GHGs such as carbon dioxide and short-lived climate forcers such as methane, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon. The Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change was released in 2016, which recognized the importance to near-term climate and health benefits of reducing emissions of short-lived climate forcers.

The Arctic Council was one of the first fora to recognize the importance of taking action to address short-lived climate forcers and pollutants, such as black carbon, methane and ground-level ozone. During Canada’s chairmanship (2013–2015), the Council promoted actions to achieve enhanced reductions of black carbon and methane emissions. A key component of these actions is the voluntary reporting by Arctic states of their black carbon emissions to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). At the 2015 meeting of Arctic Council ministers, Canada, along with other Arctic states, renewed its commitment to take action to reduce black carbon emissions. As part of this commitment, Canada will continue to improve the quality and transparency of information related to black carbon emissions and to publish national black carbon inventories.

This document describes Canada’s third annual inventory of anthropogenic black carbon emissions, covering years 2013, 2014 and 2015. All emissions reported in this inventory are from anthropogenic (human) sources. Natural sources of black carbon such as wildfires are not included.

1.1 Background on black carbon emission quantification

Black carbon is an aerosol (airborne particle) emitted from combustion processes in the form of very fine particulate matter. Black carbon is not emitted on its own, but as a component of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5), along with other components, such as organic carbon (OC) and inorganic compounds such as sulfates.

Two important assumptions underlie the present inventory: black carbon is predominantly emitted in PM2.5; and only PM2.5 emissions resulting from combustion contain significant amounts of black carbon. Therefore, the basis for the black carbon inventory is the PM2.5 emitted from combustion processes, multiplied by black carbon ratios specific to each type of source. Although important in some cases, PM2.5 emissions from non-combustion sources, such as dust raised by traffic on paved and unpaved roads or by wind and machinery on open fields or mine sites, are not considered sources of black carbon.

Black carbon emissions are grouped in the same categories as those used in Canada’s Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (APEI); these categories are described in Annex A to the present document.

The dataset that breaks down the PM2.5 emitted from a particular source (e.g. diesel engine emissions) into its different components, including black carbon and organic carbon, is known as a speciation profile. Most speciation profiles contain a fraction for elemental carbon; these fractions are commonly used as a surrogate to quantify black carbon emissions. The current inventory primarily relies on the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) SPECIATE database (EPA 2014) to calculate black carbon emissions from compiled combustion PM2.5 emissions. Several BC/PM2.5 ratios are specific to the combustion processes or technologies (e.g. appliance types for residential wood combustion), to the fuel type (e.g. diesel, gasoline, natural gas) or to the application (e.g. natural gas use for electrical power generation). Annex B lists all ratios used in this inventory.

Industrial PM2.5 emissions originate from both combustion and non-combustion sources; however, only PM2.5 emissions resulting from combustion contain significant amounts of black carbon. Where readily available, the PM2.5 emissions data from combustion were used in conjunction with BC/ PM2.5 fractions to estimate black carbon emissions (Table 2-2). Separating combustion from non-combustion sources of PM2.5 remains a challenge in some cases due to a lack of data on activities (i.e. quantity of fuel burned) and on non-combustion sources (e.g. rock dust at a mine). In those cases, combustion and non-combustion PM2.5 are separated based on the judgement of experts with knowledge of industrial processes.

The estimates in this inventory are based on the best available information at the time of compilation. Estimates of PM2.5 emissions are consistent with those reported in the 2017 Air Pollutant Emission Inventory. Please refer to the APEI Report (Environment and Climate Change Canada 2017) for a description of estimation methods for PM2.5. The present document will describe how black carbon emissions were estimated from PM2.5 emissions.

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2. Black carbon emissions in Canada

Approximately 38 kilotonnes (kt) of black carbon were emitted in Canada in 2015 (Table 2-1). Emissions have been grouped according to the following sources:

  • Ore and Mineral Industries
  • Oil and Gas Industry
  • Electric Power Generation (Utilities)
  • Manufacturing
  • Transportation and Mobile Equipment
  • Agriculture
  • Fuel Use
  • Commercial / Residential / Institutional

Transportation and mobile equipment sources are by far the most important sources of black carbon in Canada, accounting for 21.9 kt (57.3%) of total emissions (Table 2-1). An important source in this category is mobile diesel engines which includes on-road and off-road diesel and accounts for 43% (16.5 kt) of total emissions. Estimation methods are outlined in Section 2.5.

Commercial/Residential/Institutional sources are the second-largest contributor to black carbon emissions in Canada, representing emissions of 12.6 kt, or 33.0% of total emissions. Home firewood burning is the largest source in this category, representing 11.5 kt of emissions, or 30.1% of total emissions. Wood is an abundant fuel in Canada; it is estimated that 14 million tonnes of wood are burned annually in Canadian homes. More information on the estimation methods can be found in Section 2.7.

Improvements are described in Section 2.9, while future refinements are discussed in Section 3.

Generally, black carbon emissions are calculated using PM2.5 emissions from combustion processes and the fraction of black carbon in the PM2.5. For example, diesel engines have relatively high emission rates of PM2.5 per unit energy, and the fraction of black carbon in these PM2.5 emissions is also relatively high. The majority of diesel fuel in Canada is used for mobile sources, particularly in off-road applications. Other combustion sources with high PM2.5 emissions include solid fuel combustion units, such as coal- and wood-fired boilers. Industrial sources are generally equipped with highly effective PM2.5 controls on boiler emissions, with PM-control efficiencies often in the 90% range. This is reflected in the lower PM2.5 emissions compared to other sources. In contrast, the smaller and markedly different equipment used for residential wood combustion (fireplaces, wood stoves or furnaces) have poorer PM2.5 -control efficiencies than larger units, notwithstanding the different types of fuel and firing practices used for burning firewood. Given the lack of treatment of stack gases, residential wood-burning devices are by far the largest source of combustion-related PM2.5 emissions in Canada, but black carbon emissions from residential wood burning are only one third that of mobile sources due to a lower BC/ PM2.5 fraction for wood devices than for diesel engines.

Table 2-1: Black carbon emissions in Canada (2015)
SourceSectorSubsectorBlack carbon
(tonnes)
Percentage of total
Total38,243100%
Ore and Mineral IndustriesNot applicableNot applicable4491.2%
Ore and Mineral IndustriesAluminium IndustryNot applicable370.1%
Ore and Mineral IndustriesCement and Concrete IndustryNot applicable210.1%
Ore and Mineral IndustriesFoundriesNot applicable0.050<0.01%
Ore and Mineral IndustriesMining and Rock QuarryingNot applicable3911.0%
Oil and Gas IndustryNot applicableNot applicable2,5566.7%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryNot applicable2,5566.7%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryBitumen and Heavy Oil Upgrading5261.4%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryDisposal and Waste Treatment5.2<0.1%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryHeavy Crude Oil Cold Production1140.3%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryLight Medium Crude Oil Production7892.1%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryNatural Gas Production and Processing7502.0%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands In-Situ Extraction and Processing2440.6%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands Mining Extraction and Processing700.2%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids Storage0.63<0.01%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids Transportation2.3<0.01%
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryWell Drilling/Servicing/Testing540.1%
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Not applicableNot applicable2410.6%
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)CoalNot applicable470.1%
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Natural GasNot applicable250.1%
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)DieselNot applicable1270.3%
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Other Electric Power GenerationNot applicable410.1%
ManufacturingNot applicableNot applicable4341.1%
ManufacturingPulp and Paper IndustryNot applicable2140.6%
ManufacturingWood ProductsNot applicable2200.6%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentNot applicableNot applicable21,92957%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentAir TransportationNot applicable6681.7%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentMarine TransportationNot applicable1,2353.2%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportNot applicable6,40417%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportDiesel5,67915%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportGasoline7221.9%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportLiquid Petroleum Gas0.19<0.01%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportCompressed Natural Gas2.8<0.01%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportNot applicable11,36930%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportDiesel10,83328%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportGasoline, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Compressed Natural Gas5361.4%
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentRail TransportationNot applicable2,2535.9%
AgricultureNot applicableNot applicable240.1%
AgricultureFuel UseNot applicable240.1%
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalNot applicableNot applicable12,61033%
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalCommercial and Institutional Fuel CombustionNot applicable8882.3%
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalConstruction Fuel CombustionNot applicable380.1%
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningNot applicable11,52530%
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningFireplaces3,3168.7%
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningFurnaces4,13111%
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningWood Stoves4,07811%
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalResidential Fuel CombustionNot applicable1600.4%

2.1 Ore and mineral industries

Ore and mineral industry sources include primary resource extraction and processing (Table 2-2 and Figure 2-1). For the purpose of this inventory, black carbon emissions were considered for the following industries:

  • Aluminium industry
  • Cement and concrete industry
  • Foundries
  • Mining and rock quarrying

Greater sectoral coverage and further refinement of emissions are expected in future inventories.

Among all ore and mineral industry activities included in this inventory, the mining and rock quarrying industry accounts for the largest proportion (1.0% or 0.4 kt) of black carbon emissions in 2015 (Figure 2-1). Black carbon emissions from the mining and rock quarrying sector are larger due to the emissions from remote mines that generate electricity using diesel.

The APEI Report (Environment and Climate Change Canada 2017) provides more information on the development of PM2.5 emission estimates from ore and mineral industries.

Table 2-2: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from the ore and mineral industries (2013-2015) (tonnes)
SectorPM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Total5,1925,0094,563502462449
Aluminium industry2,3692,1421,694514637
Cement and concrete industry9558681,017211821
Foundries6.46.76.00.0600.0600.050
Mining and rock quarrying1,8621,9921,846431398391

Figure 2-1: Black carbon emissions from ore and mineral industries (2015)

Figure 2-1 is a pie graph representing the black carbon emissions from Ore and Mineral Industries.

Long Description
Black carbon emissions from ore and mineral industries (2015)
IndustriesEmissions (%)
Mining and Rock Quarrying87%
Aluminium Industry8%
Cement and Concrete Industry5%
Foundries1%

2.2 Oil and gas industry

Oil and gas industry sources include activities in the upstream petroleum industry (Table 2-3 and Figure 2-2). The following sources are included in this year’s report:

  • Bitumen and Heavy Oil Upgrading
  • Disposal and Waste Treatment
  • Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
  • Light Medium Crude Oil Production
  • Natural Gas Production and Processing
  • Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction and Processing
  • Oil Sands Mining Extraction and Processing
  • Petroleum Liquids Storage
  • Petroleum Liquids Transportation
  • Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing

The upstream petroleum industry accounts for 2.56 kt or 6.7% of all black carbon emitted in 2015. Among all of the upstream petroleum industry sources included in this inventory, light medium crude oil production accounts for the largest proportion (0.79 kt or 2.1%) of black carbon emissions in 2015 (Figure 2-2).

The next largest source of black carbon emissions in this category is natural gas production and processing, which accounts for 0.75 kt or 2.0% of overall black carbon emissions.

Table 2-3: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from the oil and gas industry
(2013-2015) (tonnes)
SectorSubsectorPM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Total7,8599,0258,0242,4022,8512,556
Upstream Petroleum IndustryNot applicable7,8599,0258,0242,4022,8512,556
Upstream Petroleum IndustryBitumen and Heavy Oil Upgrading1,4352,2581,646475811526
Upstream Petroleum IndustryDisposal and Waste Treatment2426225.86.35.2
Upstream Petroleum IndustryHeavy Crude Oil Cold Production278282272115116114
Upstream Petroleum IndustryLight Medium Crude Oil Production2,7792,9692,649738781789
Upstream Petroleum IndustryNatural Gas Production and Processing2,3402,3332,229765785750
Upstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands In-Situ Extraction and Processing574645685198226244
Upstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands Mining Extraction and Processing144196290354770
Upstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids Storage2.82.32.60.670.540.63
Upstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids Transportation5.96.36.42.22.32.3
Upstream Petroleum IndustryWell Drilling/Servicing/Testing276307222687654

Figure 2-2: Black carbon emissions from oil and gas industry (2015)

Figure 2-2 is a pie graph representing the black carbon emissions from Oil and Gas Industry.

Long Description
Black carbon emissions from oil and gas industry (2015)
IndustriesEmissions (%)
Light Medium Crude Oil Production31%
Natural Gas Production and Processing29%
Bitumen and Heavy Oil Upgrading21%
Other10%
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction and Processing9%

2.3 Electric power generation (utilities)

Electric power generation (utilities) sources include the combustion of coal, natural gas and other fuels for the purpose of generating electricity (Table 2-4).

The electric power generation sector accounts for 0.24 kt or 0.6% of all black carbon emissions in 2015 (Table 2-4 and Figure 2-3). Black carbon emissions from electric power generation are low because large facilities using solid fuels are equipped with particulate controls. Emissions of PM2.5 from liquid and gaseous fuels from boilers and heaters are low. There is relatively little diesel fuel used in large stationary electricity generation applications. Coverage for this sector is nearly complete; the remaining small sources (smaller facilities including those in remote communities that do not report their emissions to the National Pollutant Release Inventory) will be addressed in future inventories. Emissions from these sources, though small nationally, can have important regional warming and air quality impacts in such areas as Canada’s North.

The largest emitter of black carbon in this category is diesel which accounts for 0.127 kt and 0.3% of overall black carbon emissions in 2015.

Table 2-4: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from electric power generation (utilities) (2013-2015) (tonnes)
SectorPM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Total3,0513,8843,747202226241
Coal2,1682,9582,763375047
Natural Gas467386378312725
Diesel133149165103115127
Other283391441323541

Figure 2-3: Black carbon emissions from electric power generation (utilities) (2015)

Figure 2-3 is a pie graph representing the black carbon emissions from Electric Power Generation (Utilities).

Long Description
Black carbon emissions from electric power generation (utilities) (2015)
IndustriesEmissions (%)
Diesel53%
Coal20%
Other Electric Power Generation17%
Natural Gas10%

2.4 Manufacturing

Manufacturing sources include the pulp and paper and wood product industries (Table 2-5). This category contributes to 0.43 kt or 1.1% of overall black carbon in 2015; wood products contribute 51% while pulp and paper contribute 49% to the overall black carbon emissions in 2015. While there are other manufacturing sectors, only those with significant PM2.5 emissions as a result of combustion were included in this inventory.

Although the 2015 combustion emissions of PM2.5 from manufacturing sources (10 kt; see Table 2-5) are approximately double those from ore and mineral industry sources, black carbon emissions from ore and mineral industry sources are the same as those from manufacturing sources (0.4 kt). This is due to the lower BC to PM2.5 ratio specific to manufacturing sources of PM2.5, compared to the BC to PM2.5 ratio for ore and mineral industry sources.

Table 2-5: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from manufacturing (2013-2015) (tonnes)
SectorPM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Total11,68510,80410,421509419434
Pulp and Paper Industry8,3058,1017,261277239214
Wood Products3,3802,7023,160233179220

2.5 Transportation and mobile equipment

Transportation and mobile equipment includes air transportation, marine transportation, on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, liquid petroleum gas, and compressed natural gas), off-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, liquid petroleum gas, and compressed natural gas), and rail transportation (Table 2-6 and Figure 2-4). Off-road transport is a highly diverse source that includes lawn and garden equipment, recreational vehicles such as pleasure craft and snowmobiles, farm equipment, construction and mining equipment, and portable generators and pumps. Both on-road and off-road diesel engines are subject to emission standards for particulate matter and are equipped with sophisticated emission controls to reduce particulate matter. As more new engines equipped with this technology replace older, more polluting engines, it is expected that emissions of particulate matter will decrease.

Transportation and mobile equipment sources are by far the most important sources of black carbon in Canada, accounting for 21.9 kt (57.3%) of total emissions (Table 2-1). An important source in this category is mobile diesel engines which includes on-road and off-road diesel and accounts for 43% (16.5 kt) of total emissions (Figure 2-5). Larger sources of black carbon are those that either emit large quantities of PM2.5, or those for which the BC/ PM2.5 fraction is large. Mobile diesel engines emit significant quantities of PM2.5 and have the highest BC/ PM2.5 fractions of all black carbon sources (Table 2-6). As a result, mobile diesel engines account for nearly all emissions from this category, or about half of total black carbon emissions. The remaining black carbon emissions from transportation and mobile equipment sources come from air, marine, non-diesel off-road transport and rail transportation which account for 5.4 kt and 14% of overall black carbon emitted in 2015.

To estimate emissions from mobile sources, bottom-up approaches were adopted, i.e. applying emission factors to disaggregated activity data. Generally, emission factors are disaggregated by application class, age, load and fuel types, activity data, vehicle-kilometres travelled or number of applications, their hours-of-use and load factor. In all cases other than on-road vehicles, PM2.5 was estimated first and, from these results, black carbon was estimated. For on-road vehicles, the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model (EPA 2014-2) directly outputs black carbon estimates. The methods for estimating PM2.5 emissions from mobile sources are described in the Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Report (Environment and Climate Change Canada 2017).

Table 2-6: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from the transportation and mobile equipment (2013-2015) (tonnes)
SectorSubsectorPM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Total50,93748,90138,95825,77024,29221,929
Air TransportationNot applicable878868868676668668
Marine TransportationNot applicable13,32313,3234,6042,8132,8131,235
On-Road TransportNot applicable13,95012,94612,0967,4966,9196,404
On-Road TransportDiesel10,5019,7008,9636,7076,1725,679
On-Road TransportGasoline3,4453,2293,117789744722
On-Road TransportLiquid Petroleum Gas2.81.10.940.600.230.19
On-Road TransportCompressed Natural Gas1.416150.263.02.8
Off-Road TransportNot applicable19,98818,88718,46912,62711,67411,369
Off-Road TransportDiesel15,70214,43614,04612,11011,13410,833
Off-Road TransportGasoline, Liquid Petroleum Gas,Compressed Natural Gas4,2864,4514,423517540536
Rail TransportationNot applicable2,7982,8762,9212,1582,2182,253

Figure 2-4: Black carbon emissions for the transportation and mobile equipment sector (2015)

Figure 2-4 is a pie graph representing the black carbon emissions from Transportation and Mobile Equipment Sector.

Long Description
Black carbon emissions for the transportation and mobile equipment sector (2015)
IndustriesEmissions (%)
Off-Road Transport52%
On-Road Transport29%
Rail Transportation10%
Marine Transportation6%
Air Transportation3%

2.6 Agriculture

Agriculture sources consist of fuel use for non-mobile equipment, e.g. for drying grain (Table 2-7). Agriculture sources account for 0.02 kt or 0.1% of overall black carbon emitted in 2015. Estimates for these sources are based on the fuel type and quantity consumed in Canada and the corresponding BC/PM2.5 fraction. For this sector, there is a lower BC to PM2.5 ratio specific to agricultural fuel use.

Table 2-7: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from agriculture (2013-2015) (tonnes)
SectorPM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Total279285285232424
Fuel Use279285285232424

2.7 Commercial / residential / institutional sources

Commercial / Residential / Institutional sources include home firewood burning, fuel combustion in commercial and institutional buildings, in construction sites, and in homes. The majority of emissions from these sources are due to combustion in large, efficient commercial boilers, or in small, less-efficient residential fireplaces and woodstoves.

Among all commercial / residential / institutional sources, home firewood burning accounts for the largest proportion (11.5 kt or 30.1%) of black carbon emissions in 2015 (Table 2-8 and Figure 2-5). Emissions from home firewood burning are grouped according to the following categories:

  • Fireplaces
  • Furnaces
  • Wood Stoves

A key determinant of total emissions from home firewood burning is the quantity of wood burned in each type of wood-burning device (residential wood stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces). Wood furnaces emit the highest concentration of PM2.5 and black carbon.

The next largest source of black carbon emissions in this category is commercial and institutional fuel combustion, which accounts for 0.89 kt of emissions and 2.3% of overall black carbon emissions.

Overall, the combustion of fuels other than wood accounts for 2.8% (1.09 kt) of the total black carbon emissions in 2015 from this category. Estimations for these sources are based on the fuel type and quantity consumed in Canada and the corresponding BC/ PM2.5 fraction for each sector.

Table 2-8: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from commercial / residential / institutional components (2013-2015) (tonnes)
SectorSubsectorPM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Total169,440168,589167,48912,69812,68612,610
Commercial and Institutional Fuel CombustionNot applicable2,2552,4102,410832888888
Construction Fuel CombustionNot applicable100104104363838
Home Firewood BurningNot applicable164,707163,566162,46511,67911,60111,525
Home Firewood BurningFireplaces47,66247,19946,7433,3803,3473,316
Home Firewood BurningFurnaces58,94858,57958,2324,1804,1554,131
Home Firewood BurningWood Stoves58,09757,78757,4904,1204,0984,078
Residential Fuel CombustionNot applicable2,3772,5092,509151160160

Figure 2-5: Black carbon emissions for commercial/residential/institutional sector (2015)

Figure 2-5 is a pie graph representing the black carbon emissions from Commercial/Residential/Institutional sectors.

Long Description
Black carbon emissions for commercial/residential/institutional sector (2015)
IndustriesEmissions (%)
Home Firewood Burning92%
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion7%
Residential Fuel Combustion1%
Construction Fuel Combustion<1%

 

2.8 Use of facility reported emissions

Only emissions of PM2.5 resulting from combustion contain significant amounts of black carbon. In the Air Pollutant Emission Inventory, PM2.5 emission estimates are calculated using a variety of data sources, notably emission estimates reported by Canadian facilities to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). For sources that are incompletely covered by PM2.5 estimates reported to the NPRI, PM2.5 emissions are quantified using activity data, statistics and emission factors. For this inventory, all industrial source emissions are estimated using facility data, except in the upstream oil and gas industry, where facility-reported data are used in combination with the results of an independent study. Within non-industrial sources, electric power generation is estimated using facility data, while emissions due to agricultural, construction and residential (wood and other) fuel combustion are estimated from data on fuel consumption and combustion technologies. Commercial fuel combustion is estimated using a combination of facility-reported and other data sources.

Stack emissions of PM2.5 reported by facilities form the basis of the black carbon estimation. For each individual stack, the appropriate black carbon speciation factor (or factors) was applied to the combustion related PM2.5 (AnnexB). The emissions are then summed at the facility level and aggregated to form the sectoral emission estimate.

2.9 Recalculations and completeness

As new data and methodologies become available, emission estimates from previous inventory editions are recalculated. Several methodological changes have occurred since the first annual black carbon inventory, resulting in the recalculations for 2013 and 2014 emissions. (Table 2-9 through 2-14) outlines the changes that have been implemented in this year’s black carbon inventory.

A quantitative assessment of completeness is challenging, because detailed analyses have not been completed for all sources. The sources included in this inventory are estimated to account for at least 90% of anthropogenic black carbon emissions in Canada, since the largest combustion sources as well as those with little PM2.5 control measures are accounted for. An estimate of the sectoral coverage is included in the following tables, and efforts will be made in coming inventories to expand the sectoral coverage.

Table 2-9: Summary of methodological changes or refinement for mining and rock quarrying emissions
Sector/subsectorDescriptionImpact on emissionsSectoral coverage
Mining and Rock QuarryingCorrections made to eliminate double counting of emissions from a facility.Emissions changed by -11%
(-55 t) in 2013 and -12% (-55 t) in 2014.
Complete
Table 2-10: Summary of methodological changes or refinement for oil and gas industry emissions
Sector/subsectorDescriptionImpact on emissionsSectoral coverage
Upstream Petroleum IndustryRecalculations occurred for recent years (2011 through current) as a result of updated activity data being made available. A change in data sources (from facility data to comprehensive sector study) was implemented for the Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction and Processing sector. Corrections were made to address the under-estimation of emissions from three facilities.Emissions changed by +329 t (+16%) in 2013. There was a change of less than ±10% in emission levels for 2014.Complete
Table 2-11: Summary of methodological changes or refinement for electric power generation (utilities) emissions
Sector/subsectorDescriptionImpact on emissionsSectoral coverage
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Further disaggregated EPG facilities (i.e. separated out diesel burning facilities). Further refined EPG classifications to assign more appropriate emission factors.There was a change of less than ±10% in emission levels for 2013 and 2014.>95% coverage due to smaller facilities not being included (below NPRI reporting thresholds)
Table2-12: Summary of methodological changes or refinement for transportation and mobile equipment emissions
Sector/subsectorDescriptionImpact on emissionsSectoral coverage
On-Road TransportUpdate of MOVES version (2010 to 2014). Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) aligns estimates of on- and off-road fuel use with fuel data in the RESD. This is now done on a provincial, rather than a national basis. The activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.Emissions changed by -19% (-1.7 kt) in 2013 and by -20% (-1.7 kt) in 2014.Complete
Marine TransportationModel updates from Marine Emissions Inventory Tool v.4.0 to v.4.3.1, including new interpolation between 2010 and 2015 calendar years. The PM2.5/BC ratio was also updated for diesel fuel to be more consistent with the values reported in other sectors. Black carbon emissions changed by +138% (+1.6 kt) for 2013 and +199% (+1.9 kt) for 2014.Complete
Off-Road TransportECCC aligns estimates of on- and off-road fuel use with fuel data in the RESD. This is now done on a provincial, rather than a national basis. The activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.Emissions changed by -3.1 kt (-20%) in 2013 and by -2.8 kt (-19%) in 2014.Complete
Table 2-13: Summary of methodological changes or refinement for agriculture emissions
Sector/subsectorDescriptionImpact on emissionsSectoral coverage
Agriculture Fuel CombustionThe activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD .Emissions changed by less than ±10% in 2013 and 2014.Complete
Table 2-14: Summary of methodological changes or refinement for commercial / residential / institutional emissions
Sector/subsectorDescriptionImpact on emissionsSectoral coverage
Commercial and Institutional Fuel CombustionThe activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.The recalculations resulted in changes in emission levels of less than ±10% in 2013 and 2014.Complete
Construction Fuel CombustionThe activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.The recalculations resulted in changes in emission levels of less than ±10% in 2013 and 2014.Complete
Residential Fuel CombustionThe activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.The recalculations resulted in changes in emission levels of less than ±10% in 2013 and 2014.Complete

2.10 Sources of uncertainty

One source of uncertainty with black carbon inventories is the inconsistencies between definitions and measurements of black carbon (Bond et al. 2013). Scientists use different methods to measure black carbon particle emissions at the source and in the atmosphere, and therefore measured quantities are not strictly comparable.

Although not quantified, uncertainty about black carbon estimates in this inventory is primarily driven by the uncertainty with the BC/ PM2.5 ratios. There is large variability in the size of measurement samples used to derive these ratios; the same ratios can be by default applied to several different technologies. An example of the limitation in available BC/ PM2.5 ratios is demonstrated with the application of the diesel BC/ PM2.5 ratio for aviation turbo fuel in jet aircrafts, as there is no available ratio specific to aviation turbo fuel. Similarly, a single BC/ PM2.5 ratio is applied to all residential wood combustion appliances except wood furnaces (Annex C, Table C-2). The refinement of BC/ PM2.5 ratios is expected to improve when new measurements become available.

The uncertainty is high in determining the proportion of PM2.5 emissions that arise from combustion emissions for industrial sources. The primary data source for estimating PM2.5 emissions from many industrial sources is the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI), in which emissions are reported by facilities by stack or as one aggregate value for the facility as a whole and are not broken down between combustion and non-combustion emissions. Engineering knowledge was necessary to attribute a ratio to each sector, with varying degrees of accuracy.

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3. Considerations for future editions of this inventory

This inventory is estimated to provide 90% coverage of Canadian black carbon emissions. Future improvements will focus on expanding current coverage, as well as improving the accuracy of emission estimates. In particular, the incorporation of emissions from diesel engines used for electricity generation in remote locations (not currently reporting emissions to the National Pollutant Release Inventory) will be explored.

Another source not currently estimated is prescribed burning, which is the controlled and intentional burning of biomass as a land management practice. Although it is not expected to be a large source of emissions for Canada, it will be included in future inventories.

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Annex A: Sector description

Sectors that are estimated for black carbon emissions are listed in Table A-1.

Table A-1: Sector description
SourceSectorSubsectorDescription
Ore and Mineral IndustriesAluminium IndustryEmptyAlumina production through bauxite refining, primary aluminium production through smelting and refining and secondary aluminium production in which aluminium is recovered from aluminium-containing scrap.
Ore and Mineral IndustriesCement and Concrete IndustryEmptyEmissions from the entire process of cement production in rotary kilns, and the preparation of ready-mix concrete.
Ore and Mineral IndustriesFoundriesEmptyEmissions from facilities for the production of castings of various types of ferro-alloys and small iron and steel foundries not associated with integrated iron and steel facilities. The types of foundries included are: open ferrous, electric arc and induction foundries.
Ore and Mineral IndustriesMining and Rock QuarryingEmptyEmissions from overburden removal, drilling in rock, blasting, loading of materials, transporting raw materials by conveyors or haulage trucks, scraping, bulldozing, grading, open storage pile losses and wind erosion from exposed areas. 
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum Industry Empty Empty
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryBitumen and Heavy Oil UpgradingEmissions from the process of upgrading heavy oil and/or bitumen into a lighter synthetic crude oil using either a carbon rejection or hydrogen addition process with some hydro-treating and distillation.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryDisposal and Waste TreatmentEmissions from the treatment and disposal of any oilfield or processing waste fluids or produced water.Typically injected into a disposal well.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryHeavy Crude Oil Cold ProductionEmissions from the production of crude oil which does not involve the use of any thermal techniques.   Heavy crude oil is a category of crude oil characterized by relatively high viscosity, a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, and a relatively higher density - typically 900 kg/m3 or more (25º or less API).  Heavy crude oil typically is more difficult to extract with conventional recovery techniques and is more costly to refine.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryLight Medium Crude Oil ProductionEmissions from the production of crude oil characterized by relatively low viscosity, a lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, and a relatively lower density - typically less than 900 kg/m3 (greater than 25º API).
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryNatural Gas Production and ProcessingEmissions from the removal of undesired constituents of raw natural gas such as helium, ethane, natural gas liquids (NGLs), water, H2S and CO2 to upgrade the quality of the natural gas to meet contract specifications.  May also include the fractionation of mixed NGLs to natural gas products and possibly adjusting the heating value by the addition or removal of nitrogen. Emissions from the production of a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon compounds existing in the gaseous phase or in solution with hydrocarbon liquids in geologic formations beneath the earth’s surface. The principal hydrocarbon constituent is methane. 
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands In-Situ Extraction and ProcessingEmissions from the recovery of bitumen from a reservoir using a series of wells and thermal techniques. 
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands Mining Extraction and ProcessingEmissions from the recovery of bituminous sands using open pit mining techniques and the extraction of bitumen from the mined ore through hot water and hydrocarbon solvent extraction.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids StorageEmissions from the storage of liquid hydrocarbons (i.e. crude oil, diluted bitumen, natural gas liquids, condensate, etc.) including storage tank losses, loading/unloading and handling losses.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids TransportationEmissions from the transportation by pipeline, truck, rail and ship of liquid hydrocarbons, but does not include emissions from the vehicles themselves.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryWell Drilling/Servicing/TestingEmissions from the process of drilling wells. Emissions from diesel engines used to power the rigs are included in the off-road use of diesel. Emissions from work performed on a well after its initial completion for repair or to increase production rates. Emissions from diesel engines used to power the rigs are included in the off-road use of diesel. Emissions from flow testing conducted to determine the deliverability of a well. (Sometimes the test may be conducted into a flow or gathering line; however, more often the liquids are produced into temporary tankage brought on site for the test, and the gas phase is either vented or flared.)
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)CoalEmptyElectric power generation from combustion of coal by utilities and by industry for commercial sale and/or private use.
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Natural GasEmptyElectric  power generation from combustion of natural gas by utilities and by industry for commercial sale and/or private use.
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)DieselEmptyElectric  power generation from combustion of diesel by utilities and by industry for commercial sale and/or private use.
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)OtherEmptyElectric  power generation from other energy sources by utilities and by industry for commercial sale and/or private use.
ManufacturingPulp and Paper IndustryEmptyEmissions from chemical, mechanical, recycling and semi-chemical mills, including the production of energy through the combustion of spent pulping liquor, biomass and fossil-fuel combustion.  Also includes fugitive emissions from wood refining, screening and drying, and various steps in chemical recovery systems.
ManufacturingWood ProductsEmptyEmissions from Sawmills, Panel board mills (including veneer, plywood, waferboard, particle board and medium-density fiberboard mills), and Other wood products (including furniture and cabinet makers, wood treating plants, wood pellet mills and Masonite manufacturers).
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentAir TransportationEmptyEmissions from piston and turbine military, commercial and general aviation (landing and take-off only), and in-flight (cruise) emissions for turbine aircraft.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentMarine TransportationEmptyEmissions from marine craft in anchored, berth and underway phases.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportDieselEmissions from diesel road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, and automobiles.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportGasolineEmissions from gasoline road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiles and motorcycles.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportLiquid Petroleum GasEmissions from propane road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiles.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportCompressed Natural GasEmissions from natural gas road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiless.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportDieselOff-road vehicles and mobile equipment using diesel fuel in mining, construction, agriculture, commercial purposes, logging, railway maintenance, airport ground support, and lawn and garden equipment, along with recreational vehicles.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportGasoline, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Compressed Natural GasEmissions from off-road vehicles using gasoline, liquid petroleum gas and compressed natural gas, including 2- and 4-stroke mining, construction, recreational, agricultural, commercial, logging, railway maintenance, airport ground support, and lawn and garden equipment.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentRail TransportationEmptyEmissions from freight and passenger trains, including yard-switching activities.
AgricultureFuel UseEmptyEmissions from stationary combustion sources in agricultural facilities such as space and water heating and crop drying.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalCommercial and Institutional Fuel CombustionEmptyEmissions resulting primarily from external combustion sources used for space/water heating in commercial establishments, health and educational institutions and government/public administration facilities.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalConstruction Fuel CombustionEmptyEmissions from stationary combustion sources at construction sites such as power generators, heaters, and boilers.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningFireplacesEmissions from residential fireplaces, both sealed and open units.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningFurnacesEmissions from wood furnaces, particularly from larger, exterior units.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningWood StovesEmissions from residential woodstoves burning both firewood and wood pellets.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalResidential Fuel CombustionEmptyEmissions resulting primarily from combustion of fossil fuels used for space/water heating in residences.

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Annex B: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios

The ratios used to convert PM2.5 emissions to black carbon emissions are listed in Tables B-2 through B-7.

Table B-1: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for ore and mineral industries source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Aluminium IndustryAlumina (Bauxite Refining)Aluminium Processing, baghouse (avg)0.020832910110U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryAlumina (Bauxite Refining)Lime Kiln0.005762320230U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryPrimary Aluminium Smelting & RefiningAluminium Processing, baghouse (avg)0.020832910110U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryPrimary Aluminium Smelting & RefiningAluminium Reduction Potline0.02682910210U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryPrimary Aluminium Smelting & RefiningCoal Combustion0.013844373U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryPrimary Aluminium Smelting & RefiningAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.02043-Weighted average (excluding Coal Combustion)
Aluminium IndustrySecondary Aluminium (Includes Recyclying)SecondaryAluminium - Dross Recovery Furnace0.014262010310
201032.5
2010330
20103C
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryCement ManufactureCement Kiln (Coal-Fired)0.0022720310U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryCement ManufactureCement Kiln0.0278014331U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryCement ManufactureAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.02778-Weighted average
Cement and Concrete IndustryConcret Batching and ProductsCement Industry0.00173677U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryLime ManufactureLime Kiln0.0046423202CU.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryLime ManufactureCement Kiln0.017564331U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryLime ManufactureAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.00511-Weighted average
Cement and Concrete IndustryGypsum Product ManufacturingMineral Products - Avg - Composite0.0146791120U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
FoundriesDie CastingCast Iron Cupola - Composite0.009191157U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
FoundriesFerrous FoundriesCast Iron Cupola - Composite0.009191157U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
FoundriesNon-ferrous FoundriesPrimary Metal Production - Average0.010029000730U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingCoal Mining IndustryMineral Products - Avg - Simplified0.0146792120U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingMetal MiningIncinerator (avg)0.066583286
3287
3288
3290
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingMetal MiningDiesel Exhaust0.771243914U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingMetal MiningAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.066583286
3287
3288
3290
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingPotashPhosphate Manufacturing - Composite0.027491165U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingPotashAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.027491165U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingRock, Sand and GravelSand0.002653665U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingSilica ProductionMineral Products - Avg - Simplified0.0146792120U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingLimestoneMineral Products - Avg - Simplified0.0146792120U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsMineral Products - Average0.015379001310
900132.5
9001330
90013C
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsNatural Gas Combustion - Simplified0.38492112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsOil Combustion0.429973864U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsDiesel Exhaust0.771243914U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.13074-Weighted average

Notes:

- denotes no emissions.

Table B-2: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for oil and gas industry source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Upstream Petroleum IndustryNo DataDiesel Exhaust0.771243914U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Upstream Petroleum IndustryNo DataNatural Gas Combustion - Simplified0.38492112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Upstream Petroleum IndustryNo DataFlaring0.24-McEwen (2013)

Note:

- denotes no emissions.

Table B-3: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for electric power generation (utilities) source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
CoalNo DataBituminous Coal Combustion - Simplified0.0169692104U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Natural GasNo DataGas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants0.0255671U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
DieselNo DataDiesel Exhaust0.7712492106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataResidual Oil Combustion0.014737U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataBunker C and Natural Gas0.1974737
92112
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataDistillate Oil Combustion0.14736U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataGas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants0.0255671U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.03708802492114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataOil Combustion0.4299693864U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Table B-4: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for manufacturing source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryKraft Recovery Furnace - Simplified0.015392119U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.0370992114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryResidual Oil Combustion0.014737U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryHog fuel and bunker crude use0.0316792114 (80%)
4737 (20%)
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryLime Kiln0.0046423202CU.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryGas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants0.0255671U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryOil-Fired Boilers0.0715672U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.02827-Weighted average
Pulp and PaperConverted Paper Product Manufacturing (TBA)Pulp & Paper Mills - Simplified0.00192144U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsSawmillsWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.0370992114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsSawmillsWood Products - Sawing - Simplified0.03892131U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsPanel Board MillsWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.0370992114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsPanel Board MillsWood Products - Drying - Composite0.0891128U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsPanel Board MillsComposite wood and natural gas boilers0.2105491114
91112
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsPanel Board MillsAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.0897-Weighted average
Wood ProductsOther Wood ProductsWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.0370992114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsOther Wood ProductsWood Products - Drying - Composite0.0891128U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsOther Wood ProductsAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.03784-Weighted average

Note:

- denotes no emissions.

Table B-5: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for transportation and mobile equipment source emission calculations
SectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Air TransportationAviation Turbo Fuel (Jet A or B)0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Air TransportationAviation Gasoline0.1217892113U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Marine TransportationHeavy Fuel Oil0.12-EMEP/EEA (2013). Table A2
Marine TransportationMarine Diesel Oil0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Marine TransportationMarine Gasoline Oil0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
On-RoadDieselEC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class-U.S. EPA (2014). MOVES 
On-RoadGasolineEC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class-U.S. EPA (2014). MOVES
On-RoadLiquid Petroleum GasEC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class-U.S. EPA (2014). MOVES
On-RoadCompressed Natural GasEC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class-U.S. EPA (2014). MOVES
Off-road Fuel TransportDiesel0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Off-road Fuel TransportGasoline0.1217892113U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Off-road Fuel TransportNatural Gas0.38492112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Rail TransportationDiesel0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Rail TransportationBiodiesel0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4

Note:

- denotes no emissions.

Table B-6: Black carbon/PM2.5ratios for agriculture source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Fuel UseNo DataKerosene & Stove Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Fuel UseNo DataLight Fuel Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Fuel UseNo DataNatural Gas0.067421072.5U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Fuel UseNo DataNatural Gas Liquids0.067421072.5U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Table B-7: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for commercial / residential / institutional source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion No DataKerosene & Stove Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion No DataLight Fuel Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion No DataNatural Gas0.38491112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion No DataNatural Gas Liquids0.38491112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Construction Fuel Combustion No DataKerosene & Stove Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Construction Fuel Combustion No DataLight Fuel Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Construction Fuel Combustion No DataNatural Gas0.38491112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningAdvanced Technology FireplaceNon-Catalytic0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningConventional FireplaceWith Glass Doors0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningConventional FireplaceWithout Glass Doors0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningFireplace InsertAdvanced Technology0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningFireplace InsertConventional0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningWood FurnaceAll0.1384704U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningPellet StoveAll0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningWood StoveConventional0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningWood StoveEPA Certified0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Residential Fuel Combustion  No DataKerosene & Stove Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Residential Fuel Combustion  No DataLight Fuel Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Residential Fuel Combustion  No DataNatural Gas0.067421072.5U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Residential Fuel Combustion  No DataNatural Gas Liquids0.067421072.5U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4

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Annex C: UNECE report on black carbon emissions

Canada is using the UNECE report (template) and the associated Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) codes for reporting its black carbon emissions internationally (Table C-1).

Table C-1: 2015 Canadian black carbon UNECE report
NFR aggregation for gridding and LPS (GNFR)NFR codeLongnameBC emissions (kt)
2013
BC emissions (kt)
2014
BC emissions (kt)
2015
A_PublicPower1A1aPublic electricity and heat production0.200.230.24
B_Industry1A1cManufacture of solid fuels and other energy industries2.402.842.55
B_Industry1A2aStationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Iron and steel0.000.000.00
B_Industry1A2bStationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals0.050.050.04
B_Industry1A2dStationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Pulp, paper and print0.280.240.21
B_Industry1A2fStationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-metallic minerals0.020.020.02
B_Industry1A2gviiiStationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Other (please specify in the IIR)0.720.640.67
C_OtherStationaryComb1A4aiCommercial/institutional: Stationary0.830.890.89
C_OtherStationaryComb1A4biResidential: Stationary 11.8311.7611.69
D_Fugitive1B2cVenting and flaring (oil, gas, combined oil and gas)0.000.000.00
F_RoadTransport1A3biRoad transport: Passenger cars0.300.280.26
F_RoadTransport1A3biiRoad transport: Light duty vehicles0.310.300.30
F_RoadTransport1A3biiiRoad transport: Heavy duty vehicles and buses6.896.345.85
F_RoadTransport1A3bivRoad transport: Mopeds & motorcycles0.000.000.00
G_Shipping1A3di(ii)International inland waterwaysIEIEIE
G_Shipping1A3diiNational navigation (shipping)2.812.811.24
H_Aviation1A3ai(i)International aviation LTO (civil)IEIEIE
H_Aviation1A3aii(i)Domestic aviation LTO (civil)0.220.210.21
I_Offroad1A2gvii Mobile Combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: (please specify in the IIR)5.745.295.20
I_Offroad1A3cRailways2.162.222.25
I_Offroad1A4aiiCommercial/institutional: Mobile0.780.730.75
I_Offroad1A4biiResidential: Household and gardening (mobile)0.170.180.17
I_Offroad1A4ciiAgriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-road vehicles and other machinery5.294.884.68
I_Offroad1A4ciiiAgriculture/Forestry/Fishing: National fishingIEIEIE
I_Offroad1A5bOther, Mobile (including military, land based and recreational boats)0.640.590.57
J_Waste5C1biIndustrial waste incineration0.010.010.01
O_AviCruise1A3aii(ii)Domestic aviation cruise (civil)0.460.460.46
TotalTotalTotal424138

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List of acronyms, abbreviations and units

APEI
Air Pollutant Emission Inventory
API
American Petroleum Institute
BC
Black carbon
CLRTAP
Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
CO2
Carbon dioxide
ECCC
Environment and Climate Change Canada
EEA
European Environment Agency
EMEP
European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme
H2S
Hydrogen sulphide
IE
Included Elsewhere
kg/m3
Kilograms per cubic metre
kt
Kilotonne
MOVES
Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator
LPS
Large Point Sources
NGL
Natural Gas Liquids
NFR
Nomenclature for Reporting
NPRI
National Pollutant Release Inventory
OC
Organic carbon
PIRD
Pollutant Inventories and Reporting Division
PM
Particulate matter
PM2.5
Particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter
UNECE
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNFCCC
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
U.S. EPA
United States Environmental Protection Agency
w/w
Mass fraction (weight by weight)

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References

Bond et al. 2013. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment. J Geophys Res 118(11): 5380–5552.

Clearstone Engineering Ltd. 2014. Inventory of Emissions from the Upstream Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Canada. DRAFT. Volumes 1-4.

[EMEP/EEA] European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/European Environment Agency. 2013. EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2013. Technical Guidance to Prepare National Emission Inventories. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Technical Report No. 12/2013.

Environment Canada. 2014. National Inventory Report 1990–2012: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada: The Canadian Government’s Submission to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (April 2014).

Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2017. Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Report 1990–2015: The Canadian Government’s Submission under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (February 2017).

EPA 2006. SPECIATE 4.0. United States Environmental Protection Agency [accessed 2007 September].

EPA 2014. SPECIATE 4.4. United States Environmental Protection Agency [accessed 2014 September].

EPA 2014-2 User Guide for MOVES. 2014. Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Report No.: EPA-420-B-14-055.

McEwen JDN, Johnson MR. 2012. Black Carbon Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Buoyancy Driven Associated Gas Flares. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 62(3): 307–321.

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