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Canada's black carbon inventory - 2017 edition

Annex B: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios

The ratios used to convert PM2.5 emissions to black carbon emissions are listed in Tables B-2 through B-7.

Table B-1: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for ore and mineral industries source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Aluminium IndustryAlumina (Bauxite Refining)Aluminium Processing, baghouse (avg)0.020832910110U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryAlumina (Bauxite Refining)Lime Kiln0.005762320230U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryPrimary Aluminium Smelting & RefiningAluminium Processing, baghouse (avg)0.020832910110U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryPrimary Aluminium Smelting & RefiningAluminium Reduction Potline0.02682910210U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryPrimary Aluminium Smelting & RefiningCoal Combustion0.013844373U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Aluminium IndustryPrimary Aluminium Smelting & RefiningAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.02043-Weighted average (excluding Coal Combustion)
Aluminium IndustrySecondary Aluminium (Includes Recyclying)SecondaryAluminium - Dross Recovery Furnace0.014262010310
201032.5
2010330
20103C
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryCement ManufactureCement Kiln (Coal-Fired)0.0022720310U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryCement ManufactureCement Kiln0.0278014331U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryCement ManufactureAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.02778-Weighted average
Cement and Concrete IndustryConcret Batching and ProductsCement Industry0.00173677U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryLime ManufactureLime Kiln0.0046423202CU.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryLime ManufactureCement Kiln0.017564331U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Cement and Concrete IndustryLime ManufactureAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.00511-Weighted average
Cement and Concrete IndustryGypsum Product ManufacturingMineral Products - Avg - Composite0.0146791120U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
FoundriesDie CastingCast Iron Cupola - Composite0.009191157U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
FoundriesFerrous FoundriesCast Iron Cupola - Composite0.009191157U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
FoundriesNon-ferrous FoundriesPrimary Metal Production - Average0.010029000730U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingCoal Mining IndustryMineral Products - Avg - Simplified0.0146792120U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingMetal MiningIncinerator (avg)0.066583286
3287
3288
3290
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingMetal MiningDiesel Exhaust0.771243914U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingMetal MiningAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.066583286
3287
3288
3290
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingPotashPhosphate Manufacturing - Composite0.027491165U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingPotashAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.027491165U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingRock, Sand and GravelSand0.002653665U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingSilica ProductionMineral Products - Avg - Simplified0.0146792120U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingLimestoneMineral Products - Avg - Simplified0.0146792120U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsMineral Products - Average0.015379001310
900132.5
9001330
90013C
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsNatural Gas Combustion - Simplified0.38492112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsOil Combustion0.429973864U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsDiesel Exhaust0.771243914U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Mining and Rock QuarryingOther MineralsAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.13074-Weighted average

Notes:

- denotes no emissions.

Table B-2: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for oil and gas industry source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Upstream Petroleum IndustryNo DataDiesel Exhaust0.771243914U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Upstream Petroleum IndustryNo DataNatural Gas Combustion - Simplified0.38492112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Upstream Petroleum IndustryNo DataFlaring0.24-McEwen (2013)

Note:

- denotes no emissions.

Table B-3: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for electric power generation (utilities) source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
CoalNo DataBituminous Coal Combustion - Simplified0.0169692104U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Natural GasNo DataGas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants0.0255671U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
DieselNo DataDiesel Exhaust0.7712492106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataResidual Oil Combustion0.014737U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataBunker C and Natural Gas0.1974737
92112
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataDistillate Oil Combustion0.14736U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataGas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants0.0255671U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.03708802492114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Other Electric Power GenerationNo DataOil Combustion0.4299693864U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Table B-4: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for manufacturing source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryKraft Recovery Furnace - Simplified0.015392119U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.0370992114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryResidual Oil Combustion0.014737U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryHog fuel and bunker crude use0.0316792114 (80%)
4737 (20%)
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryLime Kiln0.0046423202CU.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryGas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants0.0255671U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryOil-Fired Boilers0.0715672U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Pulp and PaperPulp and Paper IndustryAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.02827-Weighted average
Pulp and PaperConverted Paper Product Manufacturing (TBA)Pulp & Paper Mills - Simplified0.00192144U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsSawmillsWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.0370992114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsSawmillsWood Products - Sawing - Simplified0.03892131U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsPanel Board MillsWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.0370992114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsPanel Board MillsWood Products - Drying - Composite0.0891128U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsPanel Board MillsComposite wood and natural gas boilers0.2105491114
91112
U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsPanel Board MillsAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.0897-Weighted average
Wood ProductsOther Wood ProductsWood Fired Boiler - Simplified0.0370992114U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsOther Wood ProductsWood Products - Drying - Composite0.0891128U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Wood ProductsOther Wood ProductsAverage of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions0.03784-Weighted average

Note:

- denotes no emissions.

Table B-5: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for transportation and mobile equipment source emission calculations
SectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Air TransportationAviation Turbo Fuel (Jet A or B)0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Air TransportationAviation Gasoline0.1217892113U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Marine TransportationHeavy Fuel Oil0.12-EMEP/EEA (2013). Table A2
Marine TransportationMarine Diesel Oil0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Marine TransportationMarine Gasoline Oil0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
On-RoadDieselEC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class-U.S. EPA (2014). MOVES 
On-RoadGasolineEC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class-U.S. EPA (2014). MOVES
On-RoadLiquid Petroleum GasEC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class-U.S. EPA (2014). MOVES
On-RoadCompressed Natural GasEC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class-U.S. EPA (2014). MOVES
Off-road Fuel TransportDiesel0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Off-road Fuel TransportGasoline0.1217892113U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Off-road Fuel TransportNatural Gas0.38492112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Rail TransportationDiesel0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Rail TransportationBiodiesel0.77124192106U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4

Note:

- denotes no emissions.

Table B-6: Black carbon/PM2.5ratios for agriculture source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Fuel UseNo DataKerosene & Stove Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Fuel UseNo DataLight Fuel Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Fuel UseNo DataNatural Gas0.067421072.5U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Fuel UseNo DataNatural Gas Liquids0.067421072.5U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Table B-7: Black carbon/PM2.5 ratios for commercial / residential / institutional source emission calculations
SectorSubsectorBC/PM2.5 fractions - descriptionBC/PM2.5 fractions - value (w/w)ProfileReference
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion No DataKerosene & Stove Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion No DataLight Fuel Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion No DataNatural Gas0.38491112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion No DataNatural Gas Liquids0.38491112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Construction Fuel Combustion No DataKerosene & Stove Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Construction Fuel Combustion No DataLight Fuel Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Construction Fuel Combustion No DataNatural Gas0.38491112U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningAdvanced Technology FireplaceNon-Catalytic0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningConventional FireplaceWith Glass Doors0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningConventional FireplaceWithout Glass Doors0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningFireplace InsertAdvanced Technology0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningFireplace InsertConventional0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningWood FurnaceAll0.1384704U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningPellet StoveAll0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningWood StoveConventional0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Home firewood BurningWood StoveEPA Certified0.05579138192105U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Residential Fuel Combustion  No DataKerosene & Stove Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Residential Fuel Combustion  No DataLight Fuel Oil0.191115U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Residential Fuel Combustion  No DataNatural Gas0.067421072.5U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
Residential Fuel Combustion  No DataNatural Gas Liquids0.067421072.5U.S. EPA (2014). Speciate 4.4
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