Skip booklet index and go to page content

Canada's black carbon inventory - 2017 edition

Annex A: Sector description

Sectors that are estimated for black carbon emissions are listed in Table A-1.

Table A-1: Sector description
SourceSectorSubsectorDescription
Ore and Mineral IndustriesAluminium IndustryEmptyAlumina production through bauxite refining, primary aluminium production through smelting and refining and secondary aluminium production in which aluminium is recovered from aluminium-containing scrap.
Ore and Mineral IndustriesCement and Concrete IndustryEmptyEmissions from the entire process of cement production in rotary kilns, and the preparation of ready-mix concrete.
Ore and Mineral IndustriesFoundriesEmptyEmissions from facilities for the production of castings of various types of ferro-alloys and small iron and steel foundries not associated with integrated iron and steel facilities. The types of foundries included are: open ferrous, electric arc and induction foundries.
Ore and Mineral IndustriesMining and Rock QuarryingEmptyEmissions from overburden removal, drilling in rock, blasting, loading of materials, transporting raw materials by conveyors or haulage trucks, scraping, bulldozing, grading, open storage pile losses and wind erosion from exposed areas. 
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum Industry Empty Empty
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryBitumen and Heavy Oil UpgradingEmissions from the process of upgrading heavy oil and/or bitumen into a lighter synthetic crude oil using either a carbon rejection or hydrogen addition process with some hydro-treating and distillation.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryDisposal and Waste TreatmentEmissions from the treatment and disposal of any oilfield or processing waste fluids or produced water.Typically injected into a disposal well.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryHeavy Crude Oil Cold ProductionEmissions from the production of crude oil which does not involve the use of any thermal techniques.   Heavy crude oil is a category of crude oil characterized by relatively high viscosity, a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, and a relatively higher density - typically 900 kg/m3 or more (25º or less API).  Heavy crude oil typically is more difficult to extract with conventional recovery techniques and is more costly to refine.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryLight Medium Crude Oil ProductionEmissions from the production of crude oil characterized by relatively low viscosity, a lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, and a relatively lower density - typically less than 900 kg/m3 (greater than 25º API).
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryNatural Gas Production and ProcessingEmissions from the removal of undesired constituents of raw natural gas such as helium, ethane, natural gas liquids (NGLs), water, H2S and CO2 to upgrade the quality of the natural gas to meet contract specifications.  May also include the fractionation of mixed NGLs to natural gas products and possibly adjusting the heating value by the addition or removal of nitrogen. Emissions from the production of a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon compounds existing in the gaseous phase or in solution with hydrocarbon liquids in geologic formations beneath the earth’s surface. The principal hydrocarbon constituent is methane. 
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands In-Situ Extraction and ProcessingEmissions from the recovery of bitumen from a reservoir using a series of wells and thermal techniques. 
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryOil Sands Mining Extraction and ProcessingEmissions from the recovery of bituminous sands using open pit mining techniques and the extraction of bitumen from the mined ore through hot water and hydrocarbon solvent extraction.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids StorageEmissions from the storage of liquid hydrocarbons (i.e. crude oil, diluted bitumen, natural gas liquids, condensate, etc.) including storage tank losses, loading/unloading and handling losses.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryPetroleum Liquids TransportationEmissions from the transportation by pipeline, truck, rail and ship of liquid hydrocarbons, but does not include emissions from the vehicles themselves.
Oil and Gas IndustryUpstream Petroleum IndustryWell Drilling/Servicing/TestingEmissions from the process of drilling wells. Emissions from diesel engines used to power the rigs are included in the off-road use of diesel. Emissions from work performed on a well after its initial completion for repair or to increase production rates. Emissions from diesel engines used to power the rigs are included in the off-road use of diesel. Emissions from flow testing conducted to determine the deliverability of a well. (Sometimes the test may be conducted into a flow or gathering line; however, more often the liquids are produced into temporary tankage brought on site for the test, and the gas phase is either vented or flared.)
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)CoalEmptyElectric power generation from combustion of coal by utilities and by industry for commercial sale and/or private use.
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)Natural GasEmptyElectric  power generation from combustion of natural gas by utilities and by industry for commercial sale and/or private use.
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)DieselEmptyElectric  power generation from combustion of diesel by utilities and by industry for commercial sale and/or private use.
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)OtherEmptyElectric  power generation from other energy sources by utilities and by industry for commercial sale and/or private use.
ManufacturingPulp and Paper IndustryEmptyEmissions from chemical, mechanical, recycling and semi-chemical mills, including the production of energy through the combustion of spent pulping liquor, biomass and fossil-fuel combustion.  Also includes fugitive emissions from wood refining, screening and drying, and various steps in chemical recovery systems.
ManufacturingWood ProductsEmptyEmissions from Sawmills, Panel board mills (including veneer, plywood, waferboard, particle board and medium-density fiberboard mills), and Other wood products (including furniture and cabinet makers, wood treating plants, wood pellet mills and Masonite manufacturers).
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentAir TransportationEmptyEmissions from piston and turbine military, commercial and general aviation (landing and take-off only), and in-flight (cruise) emissions for turbine aircraft.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentMarine TransportationEmptyEmissions from marine craft in anchored, berth and underway phases.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportDieselEmissions from diesel road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, and automobiles.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportGasolineEmissions from gasoline road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiles and motorcycles.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportLiquid Petroleum GasEmissions from propane road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiles.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOn-Road TransportCompressed Natural GasEmissions from natural gas road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiless.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportDieselOff-road vehicles and mobile equipment using diesel fuel in mining, construction, agriculture, commercial purposes, logging, railway maintenance, airport ground support, and lawn and garden equipment, along with recreational vehicles.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentOff-Road TransportGasoline, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Compressed Natural GasEmissions from off-road vehicles using gasoline, liquid petroleum gas and compressed natural gas, including 2- and 4-stroke mining, construction, recreational, agricultural, commercial, logging, railway maintenance, airport ground support, and lawn and garden equipment.
Transportation and Mobile EquipmentRail TransportationEmptyEmissions from freight and passenger trains, including yard-switching activities.
AgricultureFuel UseEmptyEmissions from stationary combustion sources in agricultural facilities such as space and water heating and crop drying.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalCommercial and Institutional Fuel CombustionEmptyEmissions resulting primarily from external combustion sources used for space/water heating in commercial establishments, health and educational institutions and government/public administration facilities.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalConstruction Fuel CombustionEmptyEmissions from stationary combustion sources at construction sites such as power generators, heaters, and boilers.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningFireplacesEmissions from residential fireplaces, both sealed and open units.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningFurnacesEmissions from wood furnaces, particularly from larger, exterior units.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalHome Firewood BurningWood StovesEmissions from residential woodstoves burning both firewood and wood pellets.
Commercial / Residential / InstitutionalResidential Fuel CombustionEmptyEmissions resulting primarily from combustion of fossil fuels used for space/water heating in residences.
Date modified: