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8th Annual Report - 2002-2003

Private Sector

Progress with the Private Sector

Federal pollution prevention strategy goal: Achieve a climate in which pollution prevention becomes a major consideration in private sector activities.

Industrial Pollution Prevention

Responding to suggestions put forward by the New Directions Group5 and recommendations of the Commissioner for Environment and Sustainable Development, Environment Canada, in consultation with interested Canadian stakeholders, developed a "Policy Framework for Environmental Performance Agreements". The Minister of Environment issued the policy framework in June 2001. Environmental performance agreements (EPAs) are voluntary agreements negotiated among industry, government agencies and non-government organizations to achieve specified results. Environment Canada is guided by the following principles in negotiating EPAs:

  • Effectiveness: EPAs must achieve measurable environmental results.
  • Credibility: The public must have confidence in the approach and in the parties' capacity to deliver on their commitments.
  • Transparency and accountability: All parties to an agreement must be publicly accountable for the commitments they make and for the performance against the commitments.
  • Efficiency: EPAs should be no more expensive to the parties for equivalent environmental results.

Similarly, EPAs are negotiated around the following core design criteria:

  • senior commitment from participants;
  • clear environmental objectives and measurable results;
  • clearly defined roles and responsibilities;
  • provision for consultation;
  • public reporting;
  • verification of results;
  • incentives and consequences; and
  • continual improvement.

To date, Environment Canada has signed four EPAs and is in the process of negotiating a fifth. These agreements and their key objectives and commitments are outlined below.

The Automotive Parts Manufacturers' Association negotiated a five-year EPA with Environment Canada and Industry Canada. The agreement, which was signed in October 2002, builds P2 performance targets into facility ISO 14001 EMSs. Targets for the association include a 20% reduction in VOC emissions by 2007 and a 3% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 2007, both from a 2000 base year, and individual facility P2 initiatives for targeted toxic substances. Facilities will be registered with ISO14001 by December 2003.

In September 2001, Environment Canada and Canadian companies manufacturing and processing refractory ceramic fibres signed an EPA based on commitments made in the Strategic Options Report for this sector. This EPA will assist in gathering actual emission data to determine if additional control measures are needed and to confirm the commitment of industry to establish and maintain a product stewardship program.

In October 2001, Environment Canada signed an EPA with two Dow Chemical facilities (Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, and North Vancouver, British Columbia) to reduce releases of 1,2-dichloroethane. The agreement acknowledges Dow's proactive approach to environmental management and requires the preparation of an Environmental Management Plan, including goals, target dates and timelines for emission reduction of 1,2-dichloroethane.

Environment Canada renewed the Memorandum of Understanding with the Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, which had expired in 1998. This five-year agreement was signed in April 2001. Although this EPA was signed prior to the release of the EPA Policy Framework in June 2001, it meets the principles and criteria outlined in the framework. The objective of the agreement is to reduce releases of chemical substances through the Canadian Chemical Producers' Association's Responsible Care® program. Annexes with more specific reduction targets will be added to this EPA over time. Currently, there is an annex dealing with reductions in VOC releases. The VOC Annex commits member companies to reduce releases of VOC emissions by 25% below 1997 levels by 2002.

Environment Canada-Ontario Region, the Screen-printing and Graphic Imaging Association and the screen-printing sector in Ontario are negotiating a five-year EPA. The agreement will commit the Screen-printing and Graphic Imaging Association to providing EMS training to 50 screen-printing facilities in Ontario by December 2008 in order to reduce the use of VOCs by at least 20%, based on the amount of VOCs used during 2000, and to reduce the use of other substances of concern, hazardous waste, energy consumption and water usage.

The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) represents more than 5 000 companies and reports on approximately 95% of total industrial energy demand through 25 task forces. CIPEC's aggregate target is a 1% overall improvement in industrial energy intensity per year through to 2005. For the period 1990--2001, mining, manufacturing and construction subsectors achieved an average annual energy intensity improvement of 1.8% and reduced their GHG emissions related to energy use to 8.4% below 1990 levels. Total fuel savings for 2001 amounted to $2.8 billion. Building on CIPEC, Natural Resources Canada is working with industry through the Industrial Energy Innovators Initiative to explore energy efficiency options and strategies.

The Energy Innovators Initiative encourages commercial businesses and public institutions to become more energy efficient and reduce their GHG emissions, which contribute to climate change. Over 1 000 organizations representing more than 27% of commercial and institutional sector floor space have been recruited as innovators. In 2002--2003, the Energy Innovators Initiative provided financial incentives to 59 retrofit projects for a total expected energy savings of about 1.8 million gigajoules or GHG emission reduction of 0.155 megatonnes. These projects are expected to save over $20 million in energy bills annually.

Industry Canada participated as a member of the Government Advisory Panel to the Vinyl Council of Canada Environmental Management Program. The program incorporates a number of management practices and performance measures, which make it an ideal stepping-stone to initiating an ISO14001 registration. Consisting of six guiding principles, five commitment areas and a series of practical action steps, the Environmental Management Program is designed with P2 as its overall objective. The Vinyl Council of Canada issued its third annual report of the Environmental Management Program in December 2002. The Canadian Plastics Industry Association is now in the process of adopting a similar program that would be applicable across the plastics industry.

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Sector-Specific Initiatives

Agriculture and Food

With partial financial assistance from Environment Canada--Ontario Region, commercial-scale testing of fish cage manure collectors was undertaken and completed in 2002. The results demonstrate a reduction in discharges of phosphorus and solid waste. Other P2 efforts include the testing of low-pollution feed formulations for farmed rainbow trout. Laboratory feeding trials indicate that the new feed formulations will result in a decrease in nutrient input into lakes and streams compared with traditional rainbow trout feeds. Problems with commercial-scale production of the new formulations, largely due to old feed manufacturing equipment at the feed company, is delaying commercial availability of the new formulations. The feed research has been carried out by the collaborative efforts of Martin Mills Inc., Aquacage Fisheries and the University of Guelph, with support from provincial and federal government departments and agencies, including Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

With financial and technical support from Environment Canada, a pilot project was conducted for a second year in Prince Edward Island's Bedeque Bay, to determine whether daily, specific spray advisories to farmers would influence pesticide spraying decisions. Seventeen farmers received, by fax or e-mail each morning throughout the growing season, a weather forecast of conditions for three-hour intervals throughout the day. As well, they received a corresponding spraying advisory, with a category of high, medium and low, indicating the probability of either spray drift or rain-induced runoff. An end-of-the-season survey after the second year revealed that 24% of farmers changed their practices based on the information, resulting in a reduced potential for drift and runoff. Post-project evaluation indicated that additional modelling and marketing efforts should be included in future advancements of this project.

"24% of farmers in Prince Edward Island's Bedeque Bay changed their pesticide spraying practices based on the daily weather reports and spray advisories provided throughout the pilot project, resulting in a reduced potential for drift and runoff."

Pesticide spraying

Environment Canada-Ontario Region developed, on behalf of the Agricultural Adaptation Council, a three-year liquid manure composting technology demonstration project at a 3 000-weaner pig farm. The objective was to demonstrate the merits of the composting system in reducing odours and preventing the contamination of surface water and groundwater and to effectively achieve GHG emission reductions through new technology transfer. Technology verification used the protocols of the Environmental Technology Verification Canada program. Final results confirmed a minimum reduction of 64% in GHG emissions compared with traditional manure management practices. For the participating farm, the annual reduction was 350 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.

As part of its ongoing effort to reduce the number and amount of manure spills and runoff, Environment Canada-Ontario Region continues to monitor spills and raise awareness about the water quality concerns related to manure/nutrient management on farms. In 2003, the department again conducted watershed-based farm visits in priority areas across the province. This year, farmers in subwatersheds of the Niagara River and St. Lawrence River Areas of Concern were visited by compliance promotion staff. Staff distributed brochures on reducing nutrient loading to fish habitat, including an updated version of Manure, Farming and Healthy Fish Habitat, Issue 1. In addition to distributing water quality information, staff also surveyed farmers to characterize the agricultural watersheds and develop the most appropriate solutions to the water quality problems generated by livestock farms.

In 2003, a multistakeholder workshop on fish plant effluents and sustainability issues was held in New Brunswick. The workshop was hosted by Fisheries and Oceans Canada, in partnership with Environment Canada, New Brunswick Department of Environment and Local Government and New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture, and was attended by over 100 participants. The topics covered included in-plant waste minimization, effluent technologies, opportunities for by-product recovery and nutrient issues, as well as an understanding of the receiving environments where effluents are released. The outcome of the workshop underscored the need for a better understanding of the problems the industry presents, the opportunities for in-plant improvements, treatment technology adaptation and refinement and P2 opportunities.


Now in its 10th year, the Canadian Automotive Vehicle Manufacturing Pollution Prevention Project has a goal of producing verifiable reductions of persistent toxic substances as well as other contaminants used, generated or released in automotive manufacturing facilities. The project is an industry--government cooperative partnership involving the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers' Association (including DaimlerChrysler, Ford and General Motors), Environment Canada and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. A combination of techniques has reduced and/or eliminated at the source more than 404 000 tonnes of toxic chemicals and other substances of concern during the life of this project. Negotiations continued with Environment Canada and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment for a new voluntary agreement that will build P2 targets into the ISO14001 EMS platform. .

The Collision Industry Action Group has developed a national Internet-based training program for autobody repair shops. The Project STAR environmental training course, “Profit from Good Environmental Management,” is accessible to approximately 2 800 facilities in Ontario. The training program focuses on the benefits of reducing wastes, particularly VOCs, from autobody facilities, by going beyond compliance. The project is an industry-government cooperative partnership involving Environment Canada, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the Collision Industry Action Group, the Canadian Automotive Institute and members of the Canadian Paint Coatings Association.

Under Natural Resources Canada's EnerGuide for Vehicles initiative, vehicle manufacturers voluntarily attach an EnerGuide label to new vehicles sold in Canada. The label helps consumers select the most fuel-efficient vehicle for their needs by giving the vehicle's fuel consumption rating and estimated annual fuel costs. In 2002, Natural Resources Canada distributed 430 000 copies of the Fuel Consumption Guide to vehicle dealerships and recruited one new vehicle manufacturer (Mitsubishi) to the initiative.

The Natural Gas for Vehicles Initiative provides a financial incentive for the purchase of vehicles capable of operating on natural gas. Over 1 600 vehicles have been funded since 1999. The terms and conditions of the Program expire March 31, 2004 and Natural Resources Canada is currently working on realigning the program based on consultations with industry stakeholders and on a market assessment.

The Switch Out program is Canada's first program to address mercury use in vehicles and the release of mercury when vehicles are recycled at their life's end. Building on the initial success of Pollution Probe's pilot project, the Switch Out program has almost 200 automobile recyclers participating voluntarily in six Canadian provinces. In 2003, the Clean Air Foundation hopes to collect 75 000 mercury switches nationally and expand the program to two more provinces. With the support of Environment Canada, all mercury collected through the Switch Out program is recycled into products with end-of-life take-back programs, thus preventing re-emission of mercury to the environment through poor disposal practices. The Clean Air Foundation is encouraging the development of permanent disposal options for mercury in order to completely remove mercury from commerce.

Building Design

A Green Building Network has been established by Public Works and Government Services Canada. This network consists of a partnership between the British Columbia Building Corporation, the Greater Vancouver Regional District, Environment Canada and other federal, provincial and municipal organizations. The network advocates environmentally responsible and healthy buildings, sharing knowledge and expertise in green building/sustainable construction and raising environmental awareness. Members of the network have the opportunity to participate in lunchtime presentations, tours, training and workshops on Green Building projects, technologies, products and building assessment tools.

Industry Canada has undertaken a multidisciplinary initiative in partnership with Greater Vancouver Regional District and the private sector to design and develop a working prototype of a sustainable building, affordable within current market constraints. One objective of the prototype design is the reduction of the pollutants normally associated with building construction and operation. During 2002-2003, work began on the adaptation of the design to the requirements of housing for the 2010 winter Olympics.

"The Switch Out program is Canada's first program to address mercury use in vehicles and the release of mercury when vehicles are recycled at their life's end."

Mercury switches

Industry Canada, through the Intelligent Buildings Technology Roadmap, is helping to overcome some of the challenges associated with implementing intelligent building technologies. These technologies, if adopted, would lead to improvements in energy efficiency and indoor air quality. The Intelligent Buildings Council was created to address the challenges facing the adoption of this technology, along with five task force teams with members from industry and government organizations. With additional funding from Public Works and Government Services Canada, a Best Practices Guide was developed in 2002, and planning for a 2003 Summit is under way.

Western Economic Diversification Canada is supporting the Geothermal Subdivision project in Wawanesa - Manitoba's first housing subdivision using Ground Source Heat Pumps for heating and cooling. The net GHG emission reductions from this single 13-home subdivision will be 52 tonnes each year. Energy savings for each house will be approximately $1 000 per year. Also in 2002-2003, the Rural Municipality of McCraney's in Saskatchewan received the support of Western Economic Diversification Canada to implement geothermal heat in one of its municipal buildings.


The PCI Chemicals Canada Company plant in New Brunswick produces chlorine, caustic soda, sodium chlorate and hydrochloric acid. These chemicals are used in many industrial applications, including pulp and paper, plastic production and food processing. In 2001, at the company's request, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency provided assistance in undertaking a P2 evaluation. A study was conducted on the efficiency of the plant's operations, and improvements were recommended in energy efficiency, operation controls, solid waste reduction and effluent reduction and elimination. The PCI has implemented a number of recommendations, including improved energy usage, reducing the risk of a potential chlorine release to the environment, reducing inadvertent mercury vapour releases and reducing water consumption and effluent water releases to the environment.

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Helpful Environmental Business Information

Developed by Industry Canada, Canadian Environmental Solutions addresses environmental problems related to water, air, soil, energy, climate change and research and development. It is a direct link to solutions and the Canadian companies supplying them. Canadian Environmental Solutions works because it is extensive-it describes 2 000 environmental problems and solutions, along with more than 900 solution-providing companies.


Natural Resources Canada's International Centre for the Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete promotes the use of EcoSmartTM concrete. This concrete has the potential to substantially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by substituting fly ash and other materials for the Portland cement traditionally used in concrete. Fly ash is a by-product of coal-burning power plants and is normally destined for landfill. Replacing 1 tonne of cement with 1 tonne of fly ash offsets industrial carbon dioxide emissions by approximately 1 tonne, in addition to providing a use for an industrial by-product. The EcoSmart project has contributed directly to overall fly ash replacement levels in concrete in the Vancouver area, increasing from 15% to 25% over the past three years. The success of this technology has led the department to partner with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) for purposes of transferring the technology to developing countries. Through the Canada Climate Change Development Fund (managed by CIDA), a project is under way in India between the International Centre for the Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete and the Confederation of Indian Industry. The project aims to build the capacity of key Indian stakeholders to effectively employ this technology across India.

"EcoSmart concrete has the potential to substantially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by substituting fly ash and other materials for the Portland cement traditionally used in concrete."

EcoSmartTM concrete

Natural Resources Canada's Commercial Buildings Incentive Program provides financial incentives to building owners who construct buildings that are at least 25% more energy efficient than similar buildings constructed to the Model National Energy Code for Buildings. In 2001-2002, 79 new buildings received support. Since the program started, 255 new buildings have received support, resulting in an annual reduction of 50 kilotonnes of carbon dioxide emissions. On average, Commercial Buildings Incentive Program buildings are 34.4% more energy efficient than similar buildings built to the current energy code. Similarly, Natural Resources Canada manages the R-2000 Standard, which encourages the building of energy-efficient houses that exceed by 30% the efficiency level required by current Canadian building codes. In 2002-2003, Natural Resources Canada trained one new tract builder6 and updated 80% of previously trained builders, along with training eight new builders. In 2002, 421 homes were built to the R-2000 Standard. As of November 2003, 284 homes have been certified.

New Brunswick highway engineers, with the support of Transport Canada, Environment Canada and other government partners, are designing options to minimize the disturbance of acid-producing rock. Four sites with a total of one million tonnes of potentially disturbed bedrock have been addressed. Through design modifications, the bedrock amount disturbed was reduced by approximately 50%, one-half with appropriate mitigation for the residual disturbed material. Similarly, in Nova Scotia, industrial and commercial development often disturbs bedrock, which in specific geologies may create acidic leachate deleterious to receiving waters. A recent study on disposal of this material in marine waters indicates that the acidification process is quite dormant, and no evident effects have been identified after 10 years and disposal of several million tonnes. This disposal activity eliminates the need for chemical usage associated with leachate treatment and costly on-land treatment/disposal requirements of a material normally considered deleterious when disturbed. This combination P2/pollution control effort has significantly reduced the environmental impact of development on acid-sensitive lands in Nova Scotia.

Dry Cleaning

Environment Canada's Wet Clean Demonstration Project utilizes new technology to reduce the use of detergents in wet cleaning. Traditional wet cleaning serves as a replacement for dry cleaning, which uses toxic tetrachloroethylene. Yet, traditional wet cleaning produces a different type of pollution problem-detergents that are sources of phenols and biological oxygen demand. The demonstration project carried out at Our Cleaners in Barrie, Ontario, realized a 6% reduction in energy use over the last year while increasing the volume of clothing cleaned by 7%. Detergent consumption has decreased a further 15%.

The Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention undertook a survey of practices in the Ontario dry cleaning industry with the support of Environment Canada-Ontario Region. A primary goal of the survey was to establish the extent of green cleaning among Ontario dry cleaners and progress made since the end of the Green Clean Project. The survey established that many Ontario dry cleaners are taking small measures, such as improving operating practices, modernizing equipment, changing dry cleaning solvents or initiating recycling programs with the intent of protecting the environment of the communities in which they operate. Also, a Green Dry Cleaning website was developed containing an online directory of Ontario dry cleaners that provide green cleaning options for their customers.

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Forestry and Wood Products

Through funding from Natural Resources Canada, the Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada has created the Star Truck7 Project to improve the fuel efficiency of forest product transportation trucks. Project results show a net reduction in truck weight of up to 3.2 tonnes. The lower tare weight and other savings achieved by the Star Truck Project reduce the haul costs by $1 per tonne. In the case of Tembec's Nouvelle plant's overall operations, which are considered mid-size (hauling 312 000 tonnes per year), the annual savings would be about $312 000. The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada also studied the potential for multiuse trailers for carrying various types of products. The structure of the forest industry in Canada is such that there is a requirement for different types of trucks to go from one mill to another, with trucks wasting significant amounts of fuel running without loads. Multiuse trailers would minimize this problem and could save up to 12 000 litres of fuel per year.

Natural Resources Canada's Canadian Forest Service is supporting a variety of programs across Canada aimed at reducing pesticide use, including mechanical avenues (e.g., integrated application technology, minimizing off-target deposit when treating priority stands), the development of physical alternatives to chemical pesticides (e.g., a spruce budworm pheromone product for use in early-intervention strategies) and the development of biological control tools (e.g., an integrated program for control of sawfly forest pests to determine the impact of naturally occurring microbial pathogens [fungi, bacteria and viruses] as possible control agents, the use of mushroom entomopathogens against forest defoliators and agents for use against the gypsy moth).

"The lower tare weight and other savings achieved by the Star Truck Project reduce the haul costs for forest products by $1 per tonne."

Star Truck Project

With increased emphasis on the development of natural and biological materials as alternatives to chemical pesticides, Natural Resources Canada's Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology Study is examining the effects of these alternatives on aquatic organisms and ecosystems, the effects of genetically engineered insect viruses in aquatic systems and the effects of alternatives to forest clear-cutting on habitat and biota of headwater streams, in order to ensure that the alternative practices are in fact providing significant environmental protection.

Significantly, Natural Resources Canada also supports the development of a decision support system for pest and forest management planning, integrating scientific research results, resource management information, computer models and government information system technology, thereby reducing pesticide use and optimizing forest protection/production. Training programs on integrated pest management techniques are available to field technicians and practitioners.

Environment Canada-Prairie and Northern Region is the national lead on the wood preservation strategic options process. One of the actions under the process is to have all 66 wood preservation facilities across Canada adopt a standard operating guideline. The guideline describes in detail P2 activities that minimize releases of treatment chemicals containing CEPA-toxic substances, including training on spill prevention. A voluntary implementation program was initiated in 2000, and most facilities in Canada have made significant progress towards compliance with the guideline. The goal of the program is to have all facilities compliant by 2005. Environment Canada-Prairie and Northern Region is working with the Canadian Institute of Treated Wood on the implementation program.

Environment Canada-Quebec Region, along with industry and government stakeholders, supported the establishment of the first wood treatment plant in North America that uses heat instead of chemicals. The high-temperature heat treatment sterilizes the wood, destroying any parasites that may be present. This technology will provide the treated wood industry with an alternative to wood treated with chromated copper arsenate, creosote and pentachlorophenol, enabling it to comply with increasingly stringent environmental requirements.

Health Care

The Healthcare EnviroNet website was established with support from Environment Canada-Ontario Region and is developed and maintained by the Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention in consultation and partnership with health care and non-government organizations. The website shows health care staff how to take action to reduce their facilities' environmental impact in areas such as green procurement, sustainable building design and P2 planning.

In keeping with CCME's goal of cost-effective actions to minimize releases of mercury and its compounds, a Canada-wide Standard for reducing environmental releases of dental amalgam has been developed. The removal of old fillings and the shaping/polishing of new fillings generate a mercury-containing waste when amalgam particles are vacuumed from the mouth and discharged to sewage systems. The Canada-wide Standard seeks to significantly improve the capture of amalgam wastes through best management practices. Best management practices include the use of an ISO-certified amalgam trap, or equivalent, and appropriate management of waste so mercury does not enter the environment. The standard is intended to achieve a 95% national reduction in mercury releases from dental amalgam waste discharges to the environment by 2005, from a base year of 2000.

"The Canada-wide Standard for reducing environmental releases of dental amalgam is intended to achieve a 95% national reduction in mercury releases from dental amalgam waste discharges to the environment by 2005, from a base year of 2000."


In 2002-2003, Health Canada's First Nations and Inuit Health Branch funded the replacement of mercury-containing equipment such as thermometers and blood pressure machines with non-mercury alternatives. The Branch also hired a consultant to perform environmental audits at the following Health Canada hospital facilities: Weeneebayko General Hospital, Percy E. Moore Hospital and Norway House Hospital.

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Information Technology

"The CleanMarine Eco-Rating Certification Project aims to certify 150 marinas in Ontario and rate them based on their environmental performance."

CleanMarine Eco-Rating Certification Project

Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Industry Canada, provincial and territorial environment ministries and other stakeholders are jointly working together to assist the Information Technology Association of Canada and Electro-Federation Canada with the development of a National Extended Producer Responsibility program for collection and recycling of obsolete consumer electronic products (specifically, personal computers, laptops, printers and televisions). A not-for-profit industry stewardship organization, Electronics Product Stewardship, was established to address the end-of-life management of information technology and consumer electronics products in Canada. This initiative aims to reduce the quantity of toxic substances (such as mercury, lead and cadmium) that are frequently released into the environment from obsolete electronic consumer products. Electronics Product Stewardship released its business plan in the summer of 2003. The plan incorporates feedback and input from multistakeholder consultations. Other key partners engaged in this project include the National Research Council and Health Canada.


The CleanMarine Eco-Rating Certification Project is a three-year agreement between the Ontario Marine Operators Association, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada to certify 150 marinas in Ontario and rate them based on their environmental performance. Participants are provided with a CleanMarine Best Management Practices Handbook. Marinas are audited for their performance and awarded an achievement rating. Marinas participating in the program must be committed to continuously improving their environmental practices and performance each year. Certified marinas are identified and listed in the Ontario Marina Directory. The certification program was developed with input from various steering committee members from the CleanMarine Partnership, which includes representatives from the boating industry, associations, media and government agencies and TerraChoice Environmental Services Inc. To date, 100 Ontario marinas have been audited for their environmental best management practices, and an additional 50 marinas will be audited in 2003.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada established and implemented environmental management plans for 581 of 664 client-managed small-craft harbours. An environmental management plan's purpose is to identify all harbour activities and operations that might have potentially negative impacts on the environment and outline a plan to manage the operations and activities in such a way as to reduce these impacts. As a spill prevention measure, waste oil is being collected and recycled at 27 client-managed harbours.

Metal Finishing

The Metal Finishing Industry Project is a partnership between Environment Canada and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the Canadian Association of Metal Finishers and related industry associations that began in 1993. The project's goals are to develop tools for formulating P2 plans for reduction of toxic substances, promote development and implementation of site-specific P2 plans, demonstrate the benefits associated with P2 planning and publish the progress of substance use reductions under the plans. The task force released its Ninth Progress Report in January 2003. There are 27 metal finishing companies participating in the project, with 58 documented case studies. In addition, the task force has developed a Metal Finishing P2 Technologies Manual, which provides brief descriptions of P2 technologies available to the industry.


Natural Resources Canada co-leads a North American consortium aimed at bringing hydrogen fuel cells to underground mining operations. One of the major benefits of this technology for underground mining is pollution-free exhaust, contributing to improved worker health and safety and the elimination of GHG emissions. The long-term target for this work is the retrofitting of underground mining vehicle fleets, currently powered by diesel fuel, with hydrogen fuel cell technology. The department is currently working on establishing hydrogen production and delivery protocols. It is estimated that by 2007, fuel cell vehicles will be designed and manufactured. The minimum quantity of carbon dioxide emission reduction for replacing all underground diesel vehicles (approximately 3 200 units) in metal mines alone is 1.0 million tonnes. While this reduction is relatively small, it represents approximately 26% of all emission produced by the underground and open pit primary extraction sector in Canada, which is 3.6 million tonnes. With this change alone, the Canadian extraction sector would meet its Kyoto targets.

Natural Resources Canada is also heading a project to develop a narrow-vein mining system that would mine only the veins and leave surrounding rock in place using thermal fragmentation technology. This system will substantially reduce the use of chemical explosives and the transport of ore. It can be used in open pit and underground mining. In 2002-2003, the department evaluated the performance of the technology on the surface and actively participated in organizing underground testing for 2003-2004. Efforts are also under way to develop a small hybrid diesel- electric scooptram for narrow-vein mines. One of the major benefits of this technology is the significant reduction in emissions from underground mining vehicles by using a smaller, continuously operating diesel engine combined with a high-performance filter, thereby improving worker health while significantly reducing GHG emissions. Eventually, the small diesel engine could be replaced by a fuel cell.

Another technology under development reduces energy consumption associated with mine ventilation. Electricity for ventilation represents approximately 40% of the electrical energy required for underground mine production. Ventilation on demand identifies when air is required, where it is required and at what level. One study with a specific industrial client has shown that the air delivery of the primary ventilation system could be reduced 30-40% of the time, and operation of the secondary distribution system could be reduced 60--70% of the time.

CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada coordinates a government-industry Thiosalts Consortium aimed at developing innovative technology for the prevention, treatment and monitoring of thiosalts. Thiosalts are produced during the processing of sulphur-rich ores, and they are discharged from the mill as dissolved compounds in the process water. The degradation of thiosalts within the surface waterways could potentially cause increased acidity in the receiving aquatic environment, which may affect fish.

"During 2002, the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory successfully completed full-scale stress and corrosion cracking testing of line pipe."

Line pipe

Examples of techniques used to prevent thiosalts from generating acidity include bacterial oxidation of thiosalts and oxidation using hydrogen peroxide. Research has helped to increase understanding of technical issues associated with the natural degradation and analysis of thiosalts. The mining industry is using the results from our studies to comply with permit discharge regulations for the effluent at mine sites.

Natural Resources Canada's Mine Environment Neutral Drainage Initiative continues to contribute to the understanding and prevention of acidic drainage and metal leaching under neutral or alkaline conditions. In 2003, several projects are under way in the areas of closure management, technology verification, neutral metal leaching and sludge management. Environment Canada, several provincial governments and the Mining Association of Canada, along with a number of mining companies and non-government organizations, have participated in this initiative.

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Oil and Gas

Natural Resources Canada, through the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory, researches the management of oil and gas pipeline corrosion. This work helps industry reduce the incidence of oil and gas leaks. During 2002, the laboratory successfully completed full-scale stress and corrosion cracking testing of line pipe. This research is in high demand for pipeline systems design in environmentally sensitive northern regions.

For 10 years, Environment Canada-Atlantic Region, along with Transport Canada and the Canadian Coast Guard, have provided P2 information to oil tankers stopping in Newfoundland ports. Information is provided by personnel hired by Environment Canada, who visit the ships and provide information to the most appropriate officer. In 2003, this program was expanded to oil tankers visiting Nova Scotia ports.

Printing and Graphics

CleanPrint Canada is a P2 project that works with printing and graphics firms, associations and other governments to reduce and/or eliminate the use, generation and release of toxic substances and other substances of concern. Environment Canada is a leader and funding participant in various regional organizations within CleanPrint Canada. For instance, this past year, CleanPrint British Columbia saw an additional four facilities complete the environmental management plan process, with an estimated annual reduction and savings of up to 99% in the use of isopropyl alcohol for some operations, more than 1 000 litres of reduced solvent use overall, up to 10% reduction in the use of ink at one operation, an overall solid waste reduction of more than 800 cubic metres and close to $200 000 in savings and earnings as a result of reduction and recycling activities. Long-term project goals include reduction of VOC emissions from printing in the Lower Fraser Valley to 20% of 1985 levels by 2005; reduction of silver and VOC discharges to the Capital Regional District sewer system by 50%; and contribution to a 50% reduction in municipal solid waste in British Columbia.

"In Ontario, over 200 campgrounds have participated in Camp Green, Canada!OM by promoting the benefits of using non-toxic holding tank products."

Recreational Vehicle

The Government of Canada's printing needs are serviced entirely by the Office of Information Products and Services. In 2002-2003, the lithographic printing services were certified by the Environmental Choice Program, conforming with the environmental performance standards established by the Government of Canada under Canada's National Guidelines on Lithographic Printing Services. These standards are intended to ensure the environmental integrity of printing processes through reductions in toxic emissions, reductions in wastewater loadings, reductions in the quantity of materials sent to landfills and the implementation of resource conservation procedures. The paper used inside these documents conforms to Canada's National Printing and Writing Paper Guideline and/or Uncoated Mechanical Printing Paper Guideline. These guidelines set environmental performance standards for fibre use efficiency, chemical oxygen demand, energy use, global warming potential, acidification potential and solid waste.


Camp Green, Canada!OM encourages recreational vehicle owners and boaters to use non-toxic products instead of formaldehyde-based products in their sewage holding tanks. Nova Scotia was the first province in Canada to embrace unified promotion of biological treatment alternatives. In 2001, the Camp Green, Canada!OM campaign was launched for public and private campgrounds across the country. The program is now established in the Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario and B.C. regions, with other regions showing interest. Environment Canada, along with Parks Canada, the Ontario Private Campground Owners Association, the Tourism and Industry Association of Nova Scotia, Campground Camping Canada and KOA Campgrounds, continues to support and promote the program. In Ontario, over 200 campgrounds have participated by promoting the benefits of using non-toxic holding tank products. Designation of federal, provincial and private campgrounds as chemical free is ongoing.

Western Brook Pond is located in the 1 805-square-kilometre Gros Morne National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site on the western side of Newfoundland. The boat tour on Western Brook Pond attracts 25 000 sightseers to the park annually. The pressure on the ecosystem from the influx of tourists motivated Parks Canada in 2002 to make ISO14001 certification a mandatory component of operating the concession. As a result, in 2002, Norock Associates, on behalf of Bontour Voyages, developed an EMS, and Bontour was the first tour boat operator in the world to be certified ISO14001 compliant. P2 initiatives resulting from the EMS include water conservation, enhanced fuel spill prevention and improved maintenance of washroom fixtures. The operator was awarded the Hospitality Newfoundland & Labrador Sustainable Tourism award in 2002.


The Commercial Vehicles Initiative, formerly FleetSmart, is intended to improve the fuel efficiency, reduce GHG emissions and promote the use of alternative fuels in commercial road transportation fleets. Natural Resources Canada provides training and materials to more than 149 000 new and experienced fleet operators and introduced over 1 000 new instructors to the Commercial Vehicles Initiative.

Transport Canada's Freight Efficiency and Technology Initiative is a five-year initiative under Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change designed to reduce the growth of GHG emissions from the freight transportation sector. Transport Canada leads the $14 million initiative in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada. The initiative consists of three components: the Freight Sustainability Demonstration Program; the development of voluntary agreements with modal associations; and training and awareness. The initiative is aimed at assisting private companies and not for profit organizations in air, marine, rail and truck freight activities.

In November 2002, Transport Canada hosted the second of a series of workshops on operational measures for reducing fuel use by and emissions from the aviation industry in response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change under the Training and Awareness component of the Freight Efficiency and Technology Initiative. Ninety participants from Canada and around the world attended the workshop. As of March 2003, the Demonstration program funded several projects, mainly related to rail transportation.

Commuter Options: The Complete Guide for Canadian Employers presents practical, proven approaches to increasing the use of active transportation (e.g., walking and cycling), public transit, ridesharing (e.g., carpooling and vanpooling), teleworking and other alternatives that are healthier and less expensive than driving alone to work. The Commuter Options guide and workshop are designed by Transport Canada for use by small, medium-sized or large employers anywhere in Canada, in both the public and private sectors, to help employers develop environmentally friendly means of travelling to work daily.

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Training and Awareness

In 2002-2003, in an effort to promote P2 awareness, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency released several outreach documents, including the agency's commitment to sustainable development.One document, a fact sheet, was created to raise awareness of eco-efficiency and the benefits of operating an environmentally responsible business. The agency also provided assistance to the Environmental Industries Association and supported Lean Manufacturing Workshops in Atlantic Canada. The agency's Environmental Industries Policy is in its final draft, and work on the strategy will follow.

The Building Sustainable Enterprises initiative supports industry workshops on concepts and tools for implementing eco-efficiency, including Design for the Environment, Life Cycle Management, Environmental Management Systems, Environmental Reporting, Indicators and Supply Chain Management. In March 2003, the second workshop was held in Montreal, attracting approximately 50 participants. Other events are being planned. Industry Canada, Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada and the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy participate on the federal Steering Committee.

In an attempt to better develop P2 planning consulting capability in Atlantic Region, particularly with respect to P2 planning notices under Part 4 of CEPA 1999, Environment Canada, in partnership with Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour, contracted the Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention to host a one-and-a-half-day practical training course for local consultants in March 2003. Participants received both classroom and shop floor training on how to identify and evaluate P2 opportunities and develop those into usable P2 plans.

Small and Medium-Sized Businesses

In 2002-2003, Environment Canada-Ontario Region and the Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention began work on developing an Ontario-based P2 outreach and communication program for SMEs. This project involved surveying industry associations that represent SMEs to determine what P2 tools their members would find most useful and if additional P2 assistance could be provided to the associations. The project has already grown to a national scale, with the creation of the Canadian Pollution Prevention Roundtable SMEs Pollution Prevention Workgroup, with members from various levels of government, technical assistance providers and industry associations. A new SMEs P2 website was created and launched with information on regional SMEs programs across Canada, P2 and EMS resources, funding opportunities, sector-specific information and regulatory links. A new online training tool is being developed that will provide technical advice to SMEs managers on evaluating financial benefits of P2 proposals and how to successfully sell these projects to their managers.

The EnviroclubOM Program was developed by Environment Canada-Quebec Region, with financial support from Canada Economic Development and the National Research Council's Industrial Research Assistance Program, to increase awareness of P2 and environmental management at SMEs. The three first clubs completed in 2001 and 2002 involved 30 SMEs. The in-plant projects allowed recurrent annual savings of $1.9 million, with recurrent annual reduction in the following emissions and use of resources: 25 kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent of GHG emissions, more than 40 tonnes of toxic substances (mainly VOCs), 355 000 cubic metres of natural gas, 1.3 million litres of oil products, 51 000 cubic metres of water, 1 000 cubic metres of wood and 219 000 litres of propane. The four Enviroclubs in progress in 2003 involve 50 SMEs. In-plant projects must generate cost savings and reductions in pollution emissions or resource use. Project implementation is assisted by consultants and supported by workshops where SMEs acquire abilities in P2 and environmental management and learn to establish, measure and communicate environmental performance.

The Toronto Region Sustainability Program is intended to advance the environmental performance of SMEs and manufacturing facilities in P2 and sustainable development. Program objectives include acting to reduce smog precursors and moving to zero generation of toxic wastes. The program is delivered on behalf of Environment Canada--Ontario Region by the Ontario Centre for Environmental Technology Advancement, in partnership with Environment Canada's National Office of Pollution Prevention, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the City of Toronto and other stakeholders. In the first two years of the program, 27 facilities have completed, or have in progress, P2 assessments, representing the following SME manufacturing sectors: auto parts, chemical specialty, credit card, hospitals, metal finishing, packaging, paint stripping, petroleum products, printing (flexographic plate) and lithographic printing. Each P2 assessment report includes recommendations of subsequent P2 projects that the facility should pursue in order to reduce their pollution emissions. Annual P2 results and savings from the 16 SMEs that have completed the P2 assessments and implemented (or have committed to implement in the future) the recommendations that were suggested in the P2 assessment reports include 342 tonnes of VOCs, 1.8 kilograms of CEPA toxics, 25 kilograms of heavy metals, 308 tonnes of process wastes, 2.5 tonnes of particulate matter (less than 10 microns), 16.7 grams of mercury recycled, 8 500 tonnes of water and 7 tonnes of GHGs. The average cost savings per SMEs has been $75 300.

The Business Water Quality Program is a five-year partnership between Environment Canada, the Regional Municipality of Waterloo and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. The program educates SMEs on the benefits of P2 planning and the toxics reduction provisions of CEPA 1999, with a primary goal of preventing spills to groundwater, surface water and sewers. In 2002-2003, nine facilities completed a facility review and assessment and realized the following: elimination of nonylphenol ethoxylates, ethylene glycol/chlorinated cleaning solvents and phenolic resin filter paper; reduction of paint sludge; GHG equivalent reductions; reduction in biological oxygen demand, suspended solids and phenols in the wastewater effluent; and water use reduction. To date, 23 SMEs have participated in the program.

In early 2003, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, in partnership with the Burnside Eco-efficiency Centre, conducted eco-efficiency reviews with various businesses in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The agency also funded a case study on environmental accounting with a Nova Scotia company.

With the financial support of Industry Canada, the Environmental Supply Chain Management Pilot Project is exploring and developing the capacity for supply chain management to reduce GHG emissions in SMEs. The SMEs collectively comprise 43.7% of the Canadian manufacturing industry GHG emissions and typically are suppliers to larger companies. This is a five-year pilot program that began in May 2001 and is managed by Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. Two host companies (Shell and Suncor) have been established. In 2002-2003, a successful workshop involving five SMEs suppliers was held, providing information on climate change and energy efficiency. Following the workshop, the suppliers used the services provided by the Pembina Institute to further develop their GHG reduction strategies. There are plans for additional workshops and engaging more host companies.

In fall 2001, Industry Canada launched "Three Steps to Eco-efficiency", a tool that assists small and medium-sized manufacturers to develop an eco-efficiency program through checklists on self-assessment, strategies and cost-benefit analysis. An automated version of the self-assessment tool was published in April 2003. It allows a company to complete a series of online worksheets that assesses the company's eco-efficiency by business function and creates a graphical representation of the results and potential strategies. A downloadable cost-benefit analysis chart is also provided to assist in developing a strategic action plan. For more information, visit Industry Canada's Eco-efficiency website. About 10-20% of the 800 to 1 200 monthly visitors to the eco-efficiency site use the tool.


Environment Canada supported the Labour Environmental Alliance Society, a British Columbia-based non-profit organization, to deliver the Cleaners, Toxins and the Ecosystem Project. The project delivered nine workshops to a total of 143 participants and follow-up assistance to institutional work sites in order to help them identify toxic cleaning products and replace them with non-toxic alternatives. Many of the participants were representatives from hospitals, schools, long-term care facilities, hotels, restaurants, transit operations, mills and recreational centres. The multiplier effect is estimated to be as high as 100, meaning that the project likely impacted in excess of 14 000 people. More than 20 000 litres of cleaning products containing toxic chemicals have annually been eliminated as a direct result of this project. In addition, one of the indirect results of the project is the implementation of green purchasing policies, including centralized, controlled cleaning product purchasing, for many facilities.

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Research and Development

Natural Resources Canada, through the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory, coordinates the Canadian Lightweight Materials Research Initiative, a government-industry - university partnership whose mandate is to develop low-density, high-strength, lightweight materials to achieve weight reductions in ground transportation vehicles, with the goal of reducing GHG emissions through improved vehicle efficiency. During 2002, the laboratory developed a pilot-scale process for seam-welding aluminum tubes. The first process of its kind in North America, this is a significant advancement in tube hydroforming and should lead to greater use of lightweight metals in transportation vehicles. The laboratory also optimized the heat treatment process for A356, an alloy commonly used in the automotive industry, reducing energy consumption by one-third. Two foundries have already adopted the shorter heat treatment cycle in their production.

Technology Partnerships Canada is a technology investment fund operated by Industry Canada. It makes high-risk repayable loans in research, development and innovation. In 2002-2003, the fund invested $132 million in six projects with potential P2 benefits that will leverage an additional $345 million from other sources. Project areas funded include natural gas-powered diesel engines for trucks, aero-derivative stationary gas turbine engines for power generation, advanced metal refining technology with reduced emissions, advanced materials handling processes and equipment, superior septic tank systems for wastewater treatment, innovative bio-based fertilizers, anenergy-efficient grain harvesting system, high energy density batteries for clean transportation and other applications.

Industry Canada continues to lead the implementation of the Innovation Technology Roadmap on Bioproducts (formerly the Innovation Roadmap on Sustainable Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass). The Innovation Technology Roadmap on Bioproducts will contribute to Canada's climate change objectives by developing bioproduct alternatives and promoting more environmentally friendly bioprocesses, all of which will contribute to reducing energy and GHG emissions. This activity makes it feasible to reach a reduction target of 23 tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2015.

Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency's Atlantic Innovation Fund is making strategic investments aimed at increasing Atlantic Canada's innovation capacity. The Fund contributes to projects in the environment sector. These projects involve research in such areas as advanced treatment technologies, monitoring systems and technology that addresses the reduction of GHG emissions.

Upcoming Projects

Canadian Heritage is working with Parks Canada in providing financial incentives for the private sector to preserve heritage buildings as part of the Historic Place Initiative. It is expected that this program, the Commercial Heritage Properties Incentive Fund, will reduce landfill volume by encouraging the renovation rather than the demolition of privately owned heritage buildings. Studies suggest that building demolition waste accounts for about 20% of landfill contents.

In recent years, the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican) has received funding from Natural Resources Canada. Paprican, among other things, studied energy use in pulp and paper mills and identified opportunities to reduce energy use and convert energy sources used in pulp and paper mills from fossil fuel to biomass. The pulp and paper industry has reduced its greenhouse gas emissions from 14 megatonnes/year to 10 megatonnes/year since 1990. It is expected that increased energy efficiency and greater use of biomass could reduce pulp and paper mill emissions by approximately an additional 2 megatonnes.

Natural Resources Canada is also funding Forintek Canada Corp (Forintek), Canada's national wood products research institute. One of the projects of Forintek is to study data and knowledge to improve lumber drying techniques. These techniques will result in energy savings and significant greenhouse gas emission reductions. This project will be completed in July 2004 and is partially funded by Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Energy Technology Centre. According to some researchers, the potential reduction in energy use by dry kilns in Canada would be 335 kilotonnes per year in carbon dioxide emissions.

Since 1993, the Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Centres (CETAC) program supports the development, demonstration and deployment of innovative environmental technologies. Enviro-Access, the Ontario Centre for Environmental Technology Advancement and CETAC-WEST are private sector, not-for-profit corporations that operate with funding and operational support from Environment Canada's Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate. In 2002-2003, 140 companies received business-related services from CETAC to advance their technology in the marketplace. Seven technology demonstration projects were organized. Environmental priorities addressed in these projects focused on clean air, climate change, water quality and toxics reduction. Examples of P2 technologies that have received support include a solar water heating system, mobile technology for cleaning of logging and mining equipment and a system to prevent spillage of drilling fluids around well sites. Environment Canada's Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate oversees the CETAC program.

Western Economic Diversification Canada worked with the Western Canada Business Service Network to develop the Sustainable Business On-line Resources website. The site has been scheduled for launch in fall 2003 and is intended to raise awareness of sustainable development practices among SMEs. Western Economic Diversification Canada will also support a project that will see Canada's first high-voltage operational fuel cell installed at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. There is also funding for specialized equipment to build a renewable energy test bed and a fuel cell gas flow diagnostic system at the University of Victoria's Institute for Integrated Energy Systems. Fuel cells generate electricity directly by chemically combining stored hydrogen with oxygen, producing water and heat their only emissions. Fuel cell-based energy devices will generate substantially less GHGs than many other products currently available.

Statistics Canada, through the Survey of Environmental Protection Expenditures, (SEPE) collects data on the expenditures and practices made by primary and manufacturing industries, electric power and gas distribution facilities as well as pipeline transportation. With the exception of material or solvent substitution, businesses increased their participation in all other P2 categories listed in the figure below. Almost 80% of businesses reported the use of good operating practices or P2 training8, followed by the prevention of leaks and spills (73%), the 3Rs9 (67%) and energy conservation (68%). In 2000, for the first time, the SEPE asked businesses to indicate if they experienced cost savings due to the implementation of environmental management or P2 practices. Across all industries, 38% of establishments that answered reported experiencing cost savings in 2000. The Oil and Gas Extraction Industry had the largest proportion of establishments (75%) reporting cost savings, while businesses in the Logging Industry were least likely to report cost savings (17%).

Use of Pollution Prevention Methods. 1995-2000*

Use of Pollution Prevention Methods. 1995—2000

Notes: This figure includes reported data only. The Survey of Environmental Protection Expenditures was not conducted in 1999.

* Number of establishments indicating that they used the P2 method as a percentage of all establishments that provided a response.

Source: Statistics Canada, Environment Accounts and Statistics Division.

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The following table summarizes the linkages to programs and initiatives undertaken in P2 under the federal government's action plan on P2 with the private sector.


Tracking Progress Against Pollution Prevention - A Federal Strategy for Action

: Achieve a climate in which P2 becomes a major consideration in industrial activities.
1. Develop innovative P2 programs.Ongoing
  • Mercury Switch Out Program
  • CleanPrint Canada
  • Commercial Buildings Incentive Program
  • Camp Green, Canada!OM
2. Promote P2 through refocused research development and demonstration initiatives.Ongoing
  • Wet Clean Demonstration Project
  • Canadian Lightweight Materials Research Initiative
  • Sustainable Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass
  • Intelligent Buildings Technology Roadmap
  • Star Truck Project
3. Promote the adoption of sustainable production in industrial and manufacturing processes.Ongoing
  • EcoSmart Concrete
  • Canadian Vehicle
  • Manufacturing Pollution Prevention Project
  • Extended Producer Responsibility in the waste associated with information technology
4. Implement economic instruments that will result in P2.Ongoing
  • Methyl Bromide Emission Permit Trading System
5. Help SMEs improve their environmental performance.Ongoing
  • EnviroclubOM
  • Toronto Region Sustainability Program
  • Environmental Supply Chain Management
  • Pollution Prevention for Small Business Website
  • Canadian Pollution Prevention Roundtable SME Pollution Prevention Workgroup


5 The New Directions Group, made up of corporate executives and leading environmentalists, came together in November 1990. Their objective was to seek opportunities to improve how organizations make decisions on the environment.

6 A tract builder is generally identified as a builder that builds 100 or more homes a year.

7 Star trucks are specifically designed for the task they will be working on. Therefore, there is not one star truck but as many star trucks as there are hauling conditions.

8 Good operating practices or P2 training and improved management or purchasing techniques were added for the first time on the 2000 Survey of Environmental Protection Expenditures questionnaire.

9 "3Rs" refers to on-site reuse, recovery and recycling.