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Environmental Code of Practice for Elimination of Fluorocarbon Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems

Glossary

ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers.

Azeotrope - A product resulting from the combination of two or three compounds that have identical vapour and liquid compositions. An azeotrope cannot be separated into its substituent parts by distillation. Azeotropes will fractionate slightly and experience temperature glide outside of the identified azeotropic points (ASHRAE std. 34 definitions), (See Appendix A).

Blend - A refrigerant mixture of two or more refrigerants blended in a specific ratio which can be separated by distillation. Regular blends may have up to 10°C or more temperature glide.

Certified Person - A person who has successfully completed the Environment Canada Environmental Awareness Course for the Environmentally Safe Handling of Refrigerants (previously for handling ODSs). This is not the same as a trade certified and qualified person, nor is it intended to imply any trade qualification. The certified person referred to herein will include those persons who are actively involved in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry, e.g., Service Person, Repair Person, Installation Person, (Refrigerant) Stores Person, Domestic Appliance Technician, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic, Automotive Mechanic, Heavy-duty Vehicular Mechanic/Technician, Industrial Mechanic, Technical Representatives, and Power Engineers. This course is mandatory in most provinces.

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) - A stable chemical containing only chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms. Chlorofluorocarbons are ozone-depleting substances (ODSs).

Consumption - Consumption of a controlled substance for a given period is the sum of the quantities produced and imported into the country during the given period of time, less the quantity exported. For the purpose of determining a calculated level of consumption, it excludes any quantity of controlled substance that, when imported or exported, was already used, recovered, recycled, or reclaimed.

Container - A container which is intended to contain only ozone or non-ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), or blends, whether the substance contained in the container is under pressure or not. For example, a charging cylinder is a container used to decant small amounts of refrigerant (of various types) into a system, but is not an approved storage or transportation container. Containers may be cylinders or drums made out of metal or glass.

Approved Container - An approved container is a storage drum or cylinder that conforms to the Canadian Transport Commission specification (CTC) which permits its use for the substance it contains. For imported products from the United States, Department of Transportation container specifications (U.S.) are also recognized for storage and transportation.

Approved Cylinder - A refillable/recyclable CTC approved container that is properly colour-coded for the substance it contains as per the ASHRAE Standard, and it should also be properly labelled in accordance with this Code and CTC regulations.

Designated Ozone-depleting Substance - An ozone-depleting substance that is listed by name in the Montreal Protocol, or substances added to the list as subsequent amendments to the Protocol.

Disposable Container - A container designed to be used only once for the transportation or storage of a virgin substance, such as CFC, HCFC, HFC, blends, designed in accordance with CTC specification 39 (DOT 39 if made in the U.S.A.). This container should not be used for recovery or recycling purposes, or for any other use and should be returned to the supplier when empty. Refillable containers are preferred for replacing existing disposable containers, as they are constructed with better one-way valves and designed for multiple use. There is minimal chances for emissions to take place.

Global-warming Potential (GWP) - A global-warming potential is the time-integrated change in "radiative forcing" due to the instantaneous release of 1 kg of a trace gas expressed relative to the radiative forcing from the release of 1 kg carbon dioxide (CO2).

Holding Charge - A charge of an inert or a refrigerant gas put into a system or equipment to ensure that there is a positive pressure to prevent leakage of air or moisture into the system or the equipment.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon - (HCFC) - A chemical compound containing only hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons are less damaging to the ozone layer than chlorofluorocarbons. These compounds (HCFCs) are considered as an interim replacement for CFCs.

Hydrofluorocarbon - (HFC) - A chemical compound containing hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon. With no chlorine or bromine, HFCs do not destroy the ozone layer but have a global- warming potential, as do ozone-depleting substances.

Mixture - A solution that contains refrigerant compounds and may also contain oil and other contaminants. The term cocktail mixture describes the inadvertent mixing of two or more refrigerants, usually they are not recyclable or reclaimable.

Near-azeotrope - Sometimes called a NARM, this chemical product is formed by combining two or more compounds. Its vapour and liquid compositions are nearly identical. Near - azeotropes have a temperature glide of less than 2°C (ASHRAE 34 definitions) (see Appendix A).

Ozone-depletion Potential (ODP) - A measure of the relative capability of a particular chemical to destroy ozone. The ODP is measured against CFC-11 which has an assigned ODP of 1.0. Internationally accepted ODP values have been established by UNEP.

Ozone-depleting Substance (ODS) - A chemical compound that is sufficiently stable to reach the stratosphere and is capable of reacting with stratospheric ozone, leading to ozone depletion.

Perfluorocarbon - (PFC) - A chemical compound containing only carbon and fluorine.

Recovery - The collection and storage of refrigerant from any system or equipment, containment vessels, etc., in approved external recovery storage cylinders, or in drums for low pressure refrigerants during servicing, repair, or before equipment disposal.

Reuse - The reuse of previously recovered refrigerant without processing.

Recycling - To improve the quality of recovered refrigerant before re-use. This is to clean refrigerant by oil separation, distillation, and single or multiple passes through replaceable core filter-driers to remove moisture, acidity, and particulate matter. The cleaned refrigerant can then be used at a job site or service shop. Recycling may be done on or off site.

Reclamation - The re-processing and upgrading of refrigerant by filtering, drying, or distillation and chemical treatment of the recovered refrigerant. The re-processed substance will require laboratory analysis to verify that it meets a specific quality standard. This involves processing "off- site" at a re-processing or a refrigerant manufacturing facility.

Refrigerant - A fluid that absorbs heat at a low temperature and pressure, with a change of state, and rejects heat at a higher temperature and pressure.

SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers.

Servicing - Includes installations, maintenance, testing and repair, alteration, conversion, mothballing and decommissioning.

Sweep Charge - Sweep charge is a procedure in which the refrigerant is circulated in a closed-loop system to clean the equipment. The refrigerant is subsequently recovered.

Threshold Limit Value (TLV) - the measure of toxicity effect. It is the limit of concentration of a substance in the air that an average person can tolerate without any adverse effect for a period of eight hours of continuous exposure. The TLV is assigned by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

Tonne of Refrigeration (tR) - a unit for refrigeration capacity equal to 3.517 kW (12 000 Btu/h).

Ultraviolet Radiation B (UV-B) - This form of radiant energy is emitted by the sun. It has a wavelength between 280 to 320 nm. Exposure to excess UV-B is harmful to humans, animals, and plants. The ozone layer forms a protective shield that helps to protect the earth from excessive levels of UV-B radiation.

UNEP - United Nations Environmental Program.

White Goods - Household domestic appliances such as freezers or refrigerators, that include a 115/230 volt self-contained plug-in refrigeration or air conditioning system (or gas- operated system for mobile homes).

Zeotropes - Are refrigerant blends consisting of a combination of two or more different chemical compounds, often used individually as refrigerant for other applications. Unlike azeotropes, zeotrophic blends separate more easily into their substituent parts.

B 52-M1995 Mechanical Refrigeration Code (as amended/updated from time to time) - This is a code of practice to ensure that adequate safety standards are consistently applied to refrigeration, air conditioning, and heat pump systems. It applies to the design, construction, installation, operation, and inspection of every type of refrigeration system. This Code is mandatory in all provinces.

B 51 Code for Boilers, Pressure Vessel and Pressure Piping Code - (as amended/updated from time to time) This code of practice ensures adequate safety standards for all types of installations involving high pressure systems [> 103 kPa (>15 psig) design pressure]. This Code is mandatory in all provinces.