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Ecological Screening Assessment Report on Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Its Salts and Its Precursors that Contain the C8F17SO2 or C8F17SO3, or C8F17SO2N Moiety

8. References

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Houde, M., Wells, R.S., Fair, P.A., Bossart, G.D., Hohn, A.A., Rowles, T.K., Sweeney, J.C., Solomon, K.R., Muir, D.C.G. 2005. Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Free-Ranging Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Environmental Science and Technology 39:6591-6598.

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US EPA OPPT AR226-0060. 3M submission (not dated). Data summaries completed 1999. Transport between environmental compartments (fugacity): perfluorooctanesulfonate.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0091. 3M submission dated 4/26/00. PFOS: a 96-hour static acute toxicity test with the freshwater mussel (Unio complamatus), with protocol.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0097. 3M submission dated 4/26/00. PFOS: an early life-stage toxicity test with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), with protocol.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0101. 3M submission dated 4/26/00. PFOS: a flow-through life cycle toxicity test with the saltwater mysid (Mysidopsis bahia), with protocol.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0103. 3M submission dated 4/26/00. PFOS: a dietary LC50 study with the mallard, with protocol.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0104. 3M submission not dated. Dietary acute northern bobwhite study: perfluorooctanesulfonate.

US EPA OPPT AR226-136. 3M Study dated June 19, 2003. Final Report, Laboratory-Scale Thermal Degradation of Perfluoro-Octanyl Sulfonate and Related Precursors, Environmental Sciences and Engineering Group, University of Dayton Research Institute.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0137. 3M submission of Attachments to Letter to C. Auer dated May 4, 2000. Perfluoroocatne sulfonate studies.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0139. 3M submission dated 11/10/78. Ninety-day subacute rat toxicity study, with Fluorad fluorochemical surfactant FC-95.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0144. 3M submission not dated. 4-week capsule toxicity study with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid potassium salt (PFOS; T-6295) in Cynomolgus monkeys

US EPA OPPT AR226-0167. 3M submission dated 2/4/98. The effect of perfluorinated arylalkylsulfonamides on bioenergetics of rat liver mitochondria.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0169. 3M submission not dated. Summary of the effects of PFC’s on mitochondrial bioenergetics in vitro.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0184. 3M submission dated 4/6/00. Attachment to letter to C. Auer dated May 4, 2000. Ongoing studies on perfluorooctanesulfonates (sic): abiotic degradation studies of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0240. 3M submission not dated. Mechanism of toxicity of a unique pesticide: N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (NEPFOS), and its metabolite perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOS) to isolated rabbit renal cortical mitochondria (RCM), abstract from 1989 Society of Toxicology meeting.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0473. 1992. Fluorochemicals and Human Health Studies in an Occupational Cohort.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0547. 3M submission dated 5/2/99. The science of organic fluorochemistry.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0550. 3M submission dated 5/26/99. Fluorochemical use, distribution and release overview.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0569. 3M submission dated 6/10/99. Summary PFOS rat two-generation reproduction study.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0588. 3M submission dated 06/16/00. Phase-out plan for POSF-based products.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0620. 3M submission dated 3/1/00. Sulfonated perfluorochemicals in the environment: sources, dispersion, fate and effects.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0949. 3M submission dated 1/11/99. Final report: protocol 418-012: oral (stomach tube) developmental toxicity of PFOS in rabbits.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0953. 3M submission dated 4/26/00. PFOS: a dietary LC50 study with the northern bobwhite, with protocol.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0956. 3M submission not dated. Summary report: 104-week dietary chronic study and carcinogenicity study with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid potassium salt (PFOS: T-6295) in rats: week 53.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0957. 3M submission dated 4/12/00. Draft final report: 26-week capsule toxicity study with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid potassium salt (PFOS: T-6295) in Cynomolgus monkeys, volume I.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0958. 3M submission dated 4/12/00. Draft final report: 26-week capsule toxicity study with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid potassium salt (PFOS: T-6295) in Cynomolgus monkeys, volume II.

US EPA OPPT AR226-0967. 3M submission dated 1/11/99. Final report: protocol 418-010: oral (stomach tube) developmental toxicity study of N-EtFOSE in rabbits.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a040. 3M submission dated 4/23/01. The 35-day aerobic biodegradation study of PFOS.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a042. 3M submission dated 6/21/01, revised 7/16/02. Perfluorooctanesulfonate, potassium salt (PFOS): a flow-through bioconcentration test with the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a047. 3M submission dated 6/9/00. Analysis of PFOS in test organisms from the 96-hour static acute toxicity test with the freshwater mussel.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a049. 3M submission dated 3/19/01. Laboratory report: revision 1. Analytical report of data for PFOS dietary LC50 study with mallards.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a057. 3M submission dated 4/6/01. PFOS: a frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (PETAX).

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a073. 3M submission dated 8/6/80. Photolysis study on FM-3925 (direct and indirect).

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a074. 3M submission dated 11/7/80. Photolysis of FM3925 in aqueous solutions (direct).

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a076. 3M submission dated 3/30/01. Hydrolysis reactions of 2-(N-methylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)-ethyl alcohol (N-MeFOSE alcohol).

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a079. 3M submission dated 2/23/01. Hydrolysis reactions of 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamide)-ethyl alcohol (N-EtFOSE alcohol).

US EPA OPPT AR 226-1030a080. 3M submission dated 4/19/01. Screening studies on the aqueous photolytic degradation of 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)-ethyl alcohol (N-EtFOSE alcohol).

US EPA OPPT AR 226-1030a104. 3M submission dated 6/12/01. Indirect photolysis of gaseous perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF) by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

US EPA OPPT AR 226-1030a106. 3M submission not dated. Executive summary of photolysis studies.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a111. 3M submission dated 6/25/01. Environmental monitoring -- Multi-city study water, sludge, sediment, POTW effluent and landfill leachate samples.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a156. 3M submission dated 6/20/01. Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate and related fluorochemicals in fish tissues.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a157. 3M submission dated 6/20/01. Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate and related fluorochemicals in mink and river otters.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a158. 3M submission dated 6/20/01. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and related fluorochemicals in oyster, Crassostrea virginica, from the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a159. 3M submission dated 6/20/01. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and related fluorochemicals in fish-eating water birds.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a160. 3M submission dated 6/20/01. Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1030a161. 3M submission dated 6/01/01. Selected fluorochemicals in the Decatur, Alabama area.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1106. 3M submission dated 5/10/02. Final report and robust summary PFOS: an acute toxicity study with the earthworm in an artificial soil substrate. Wildlife International, Ltd. Project No. 454-111.

US EPA AR-226-1107. 3M Environmental Laboratory. 2002. Soil adsorption revised. June 12, 2002, revision to 3M Technical Report “Soil Adsorption/Desorption Study of Potassium Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS).” Project No. E00-1311, final report completion date June 4, 2001. Amended report completion date May 24, 2002

US EPA AR226-1486. 2003. 3M Environmental and Health Assessment of Perfluorooctanoic Sulfonic Acid and its Salts Prepared by J. Moore (Hollyhouse Inc.), J. Rodericks, D. Turnbull (Environ Corp), W. Warren-Hicks et al. (Cadmus)

US EPA OPPT AR226-1735. 3M submission dated 3/24/04. Final Report: PFOS – A Dietary LC50 Study with Mallard. Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454-102.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1738. 3M submission dated 12/18/03. Final Report PFOS: A Pilot Reproduction Study with the Mallard Wildlife International, Ltd. Project Number: 454-108

US EPA OPPT 226-1739. Analytical Report Extraction of Potassium Perfluoro octanesulfonate from Mallard Serum and Mallard Liver for Analysis Using HPLC- Electrospray/Mass Spectrometry. Centre Analytical Laboratories Inc. Study Number: 023-042

US EPA OPPT 226-1740. Submission dated 9/6/01 Analytical Report Extraction of Potassium Perfluoro octanesulfonate from Egg Membrane Albumen and Yolk for Analysis Using HPLC-Electrospray/ Mass Spectrometry Study No. 023-063.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1831. 3M Submission dated 8/20/03. Final Report PFOS: A Reproduction Study with the Northern Bobwhite Wildlife International, Ltd. Project Number: 454-108

US EPA AR226-04996. 3M Company 1995. Technical Report Summary of Preliminary Investigation on Assessment of the Bioaccumulative Properties of Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate: static. Submitted

US EPA OPPT AR226-1832. 3M Submission dated 4/18/03. Study Analytical Phase Report for PFOS: A Reproduction Study with the Northern Bobwhite. 3M Environmental Laboratory Study # E01-1245 Wildlife International Ltd. Project Number: 454-108

US EPA OPPT AR226-1833. 3M Submission dated 6/2/03. Study Extraction of Potassium Perfluorooctanesulfonate from Red Blood Cells and Serum for Analysis Using HPLC-Electrospray/Mass Spectrometry. Exygen Research Study Number: 023-066.

US EPA OPPT AR226-1834. Analytical Report: Analysis of Perflurooctane Sulfonate in Mallard and Quail Egg Yolk. Exygen Research Study Number 023-070.

Van Vlaardingen, P.L.A., Traas, T.P., Wintersen, Aldenberg, T.2004 ETX 2.0. A program to calculate hazardous concentrations and fraction affected, based on normally distributed toxicity data. Report 601501028/2004. Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezonheid en Milieu (RIVM).

Verreault, J., Houde, M., Gabrielsen, G.W., Berger, U., Haukås, M., Letcher, R., Muir, D.C.G. 2005. Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Plasma, Liver, Brain, and Eggs of Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Environmental Science and Technology 39: 7439-7445.

Yamashita, N., Kurunthachalam, K., Taniyasu, S., Horii, Y., Petrick, G., and Gamo, T. 2005. A global survey of perfluorinated acids in oceans. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Volume 51, Issue 8-12, 658-668.