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Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 Annual Report for April 2013 to March 2014
2 Addressing Key Risks
- 2.1 Toxic Substances Harmful to Human Health or the Environment
- 2.2 Living Organisms
- 2.3 Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases
- 2.4 Water Quality
- 2.5 Waste
- 2.6 Environmental Emergencies
2.1 Toxic Substances Harmful to Human Health or the Environment
Parts 5 and 6 of CEPA 1999 includes specific provisions for data collection, assessment and management for controlling toxic substances. Substances include both chemicals and living organisms (specific information on living organisms begins in Section 2.2). For chemicals, part of this included a requirement for the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health to sort through, or “categorize,” the substances on the Domestic Substances List, an inventory of approximately 23 000 substances manufactured in, imported into or used in Canada on a commercial scale. The categorization process identified for more detailed assessment approximately 4 300 substances that:
- were suspected to be inherently toxic to humans or to the environment, and are persistent (take a very long time to break down) or bioaccumulative (collect in living organisms and end up in the food chain); or
- present the greatest potential for exposure to Canadians.
The Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) is a program to protect Canadians and their environment from exposure to harmful chemicals and living organisms. It includes a number of activities for which the obligations or authorities are spread throughout CEPA 1999. The Chemical Substances website provides more information on activities related to the CMP.
Under the CMP, the government conducts pre-market assessments of health and environmental effects of approximately 500 substances that are new to Canada each year. The CMP also provides one of the most comprehensive approaches in the world to assessing risks from the tens of thousands of substances that came into use before these new substance requirements were in place.
At the core of the CMP is a commitment to address, by 2020, some 4300 substances of potential concern that were already in commerce in Canada when a pre-market notification requirement was introduced under CEPA 1999.
Monitoring, Research, Information Gathering and Risk Assessment Activities
Monitoring and surveillance activities are essential to identify and track levels and trends related to chemicals in the environment and human exposure to those chemicals.
In 2013-2014, a broad range of chemical monitoring activities were undertaken in support of the CMP, the Northern Contaminants Program, the Great Lakes Surveillance Program, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, the Great Lakes Herring Gull Contaminants Monitoring Program, as well as the Arctic Council’s Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution.
The CMP Monitoring and Surveillance Program involves the collection of data on the concentration of chemical substances in environmental compartments at locations across Canada. Environmental compartments include surface water, sediment, air, aquatic biota and wildlife. Wastewater system influent, effluent and biosolids are also monitored at select locations representing a range of input and treatment system types.
Through the program, many priority substances, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), other flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds (including PFOS and PFCAs), siloxanes, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and metals, have been measured to provide environmental data for risk assessment and risk management decision making. The collection of data on these substances will establish baseline information and ultimately allow for the analysis of temporal trends--a key element of measuring the performance of risk management activities.
Health Canada monitoring activities focused on human exposure to contaminants, including measurement of chemicals in household dust, volatile organic compounds in drinking water, a selection of chemicals in indoor air, hexachloro-norborne-based flame retardants in human milk and serum, and phthalates and BPA exposure in pregnant women.
Health Canada released The Second Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals: Results of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 2 (2009-2011). This report presents national biomonitoring data on the Canadian population’s exposure to chemicals.
In addition to data collection and reporting on a range of chemicals, monitoring efforts in 2013-2014 also included upgrades to monitoring technologies and establishing new sampling techniques and methodologies to detect trace contaminants in the environment.
More information about monitoring activities is available online.
Environment Canada and Health Canada conduct a wide range of research under the authority of CEPA 1999. Among other purposes, this research is designed to fill data gaps in risk assessments; evaluate the impact of toxic substances and other substances of concern on the environment and human health; determine the extent of ecological and human health exposure to contaminants; and provide specialized sampling and analytical techniques for monitoring and for enforcement.
Health Canada undertakes research to support the development of regulations, guidelines and air quality objectives with the goal of reducing population exposures to pollutants and improving human health.
During 2013-2014, research was carried out under a number of programs, including the CMP, the Northern Contaminants Program, the Strategic Technology Applications of Genomics in the Environment Program and the Great Lakes Action Plan.
During 2013-2014, research was initiated on a number of subjects, including the atmospheric degradation of priority chemicals (i.e., flame retardants), and development of analytical methods for determining (alkyl) substituted phenylamine antioxidants in water, wastewater, biosolids, sediments and biotic tissues.
Ongoing research continued on the exposure and toxicity of CMP priority chemicals such as endocrine-disrupting compounds, azo and benzidine dyes, phthalates, flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and nanomaterials (silver). Research also continued on aquatic and atmospheric mercury in the Arctic; endocrine-disrupting compounds including hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); emerging metabolites of CMP priority pollutants in humans; volatile organic compounds in residences; levels of metals and emerging organic pollutants in polar bears; toxicity and accumulation of rare earth elements in plants and invertebrates; priority organic chemicals; ecotoxicity of xanthene dyes and non-chlorinated bisphenol (binox); organophosphate esters and phthalates in house dust; effects and toxicity of chemical mixtures; and effects of chemicals on endocrine systems.
A number of research projects were completed in 2013-2014. For some, data analysis is under way, and for others, reports have been or are in the process of being published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Research subjects include:
- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: occurrence in avian tissue; avian mRNA expression; atmospheric measurements using improved tools and techniques;
- flame retardants: breakdown and metabolism; occurrence in avian eggs and in St. Lawrence River fish; in ovo effects; presence in house dust; maternal transfer to eggs in avian species; avian cytotoxicity and mRNA expression; investigating non-brominated flame retardants to understand fate and global loadings from long-range transport; toxicity to a series of aquatic organisms of different taxonomic groups; impacts on Daphnia magna; fate and presence in remote aquatic environments; potential toxic effects relevant to humans; neurotoxicity;
- aromatic azo and benzidine substances:genotoxicity and environmental fate in aquatic environments; chronic toxicity in invertebrates and fish; bioaccumulation, bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms;
- siloxanes: improved techniques for predicting atmospheric persistence in air; determination in biota;
- persistent organic pollutants: impact on gene expression; levels of different persistent organic pollutants in humans; atmospheric measurements using improved tools and techniques; long-term monitoring to validate models;
- inorganics: effects and bioaccumulation potential in soil organisms and aquatic organisms;
- metals: speciation, bioaccessibility and transformation in house dust; ecorisk assessment of mercury;
- perfluoroalkyl substances and their precursor compounds: characterization; contributions of point and non-point sources; guidance on passive and active air sampling methods; multimedia trends and impacts of long-range atmospheric transport;
- nanomaterials: methods to identify and characterize nanoparticle emissions in indoor environments; predicting toxicity based on size and surface characteristics; influence of physicochemical characteristics on toxicity; in vitro studies on the toxicity of silica nanoparticles and factors influencing their potency; toxicity and factors influencing potency; characterization of carbon-based, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles; toxicological effects following exposure; detection in commercial products and the environment;
- pharmaceutical and personal care products: bioaccumulation and toxicity; occurrence and fate in wastewater treatment systems and effluents.
Information Gathering and Risk Assessment
New Substances Risk Assessment
Substances that are not on the Domestic Substances List are considered to be new to Canada. New substances may not be manufactured in or imported into Canada unless the Minister of the Environment has been notified with certain prescribed information and the period for assessing the information has expired. New substances include living organisms, and reporting on living organisms is included in Section 2.2 of this report.
In 2013-2014, 506 new substance notifications were received pursuant to s81 of the Act and in keeping with the New Substances Notification Regulations (Chemicals and Polymers) and the New Substances Notification Regulations (Organisms).
Some of the 506 new substances notifications related to nanomaterials and substances that have the potential to be manufactured in the nanoscale.
For new substances in products regulated under the Food and Drugs Act, 68 notifications for chemical/polymer substances and 3 notifications for living organisms were received and assessed in 2013-2014.
Since September 2001, substances in products regulated under the Food and Drugs Act have been subject to the the new substances provisions in CEPA. Substances that were in products that were regulated under the Food and Drugs Act and that were in Canadian commerce between January 1, 1987, and September 13, 2001, were placed on an administrative list, called the In Commerce List. The updated Revised “In Commerce List” (R-ICL), containing approximately 3400 substances, was published on Health Canada’s website in May 2013. In 2013-2014, 1373 substances on the R-ICL underwent prioritization (identifying substances of higher, medium and lower concern).
Chemicals Management Plan
Under the CMP, Environment Canada and Health Canada continued to gather information and assess the potential ecological and health risks from the remaining high-priority substances of the first phase of the CMP under the Challenge and the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach. They also continued data collection and assessment work as part of the second phase of the CMP under the Substance Groupings Initiative and the Rapid Screening Approach.
Through the Challenge program of the CMP, the Ministers committed to addressing the 200 highest-priority substances. These 200 substances were divided into 12 smaller groups or “batches” that were addressed sequentially. Each batch of substances in the Challenge progressed through various information gathering, screening assessment, risk management, and compliance promotion and enforcement (where appropriate) stages. To date, 42 of these substances have been found to meet one or more of the criteria in section 64Footnote1 of CEPA 1999. During the 2013-2014 period, risk assessment and risk management work was ongoing to complete the last batch for this initiative.
The Petroleum Sector Stream Approach
The Petroleum Sector Stream Approach includes approximately 170 substances identified as priorities for action through the categorization process and that were set aside to be addressed in a sectoral approach. A large portion of high-priority petroleum substances are used or manufactured during petroleum refining or bitumen/heavy crude oil upgrading activities. Data collection, risk assessment and, where appropriate, risk management are continuing on the substances that are part of this initiative.
During 2013-2014, the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health published the draft screening assessment reports for seven substances, including Fuel Oil No. 2, Fuel Oil No. 4, Fuel Oil No. 6 and residuals, as well as aviation fuels. In addition, both Ministers published the final screening assessment reports for 54 substances including site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases, industry-restricted low boiling-point naphthas, petroleum and refinery gases, heavy fuel and gas oils. Details of these assessments are listed in Table 1.
During 2013-2014, information received under a Notice issued under section 71 of CEPA 1999 in December 2011 continued to be analyzed to inform the risk assessment of petroleum substances that may be present in consumer products.
The Substance Groupings Initiative
One of the current key initiatives under the CMP is the Substance Groupings Initiative. This was launched on October 8, 2011, and includes the following nine groups of substances:
- aromatic azo- and benzidine-based substances
- boron-containing substances
- certain internationally classified substances with potential for exposure to individuals in Canada
- certain organic flame retardants
- cobalt-containing substances
- methylenediphenyl diisocyanates and diamines
- selenium-containing substances
- substituted diphenylamines
During 2013-2014, the Minister of Health and the Minister of the Environment published draft Screening Assessment Reports for 244 of the 358 aromatic azo- and benzidine-based substances, including 42 benzidine-based dyes, 5 diarylinde yellow pigments, 33 monoazo pigments, 73 azo disperse dyes, 22 azo solvent dyes, and 69 azo direct dyes and azo reactive dyes.
In 2013-2014, the Minister of the Environment issued two Notices under section 71 of CEPA 1999 to gather information to support the Substance Groupings Initiative. One Notice applied to 23 substances that are part of the Selenium Substance Grouping, and the second applied to 28 Phthalate substances, 14 of which are part of the Phthalates Substance Grouping, and 14 additional substances that are under consideration for inclusion in the grouping. In addition, the departments completed analysis of the information collected from the CEPA section 71 Notices that they had previously issued for Triclosan, Cobalt-containing substances, Methylenediphenyl diisocyanates and diamines, Internationally Classified substances, Substituted diphenylamines and certain organic flame retardants. The information from these data-gathering initiatives will be used to inform ecological and human health risk assessments and, if necessary, risk management of these substances.
The Domestic Substances List Inventory Update
Building on the first phase of the Domestic Substances List Inventory Update (DSL IU), the second phase of the DSL IU was launched in December 2012 with the publication of a section 71 Notice. In total, 626 responses were received, processed and analyzed in 2013-2014.
The updated information on the commercial status of approximately 2700 substances that are remaining priorities under the CMP will support subsequent risk assessment and risk management activities.
The Rapid Screening Approach
The rapid screening approach is utilized for substances of lower concern. This approach uses a series of qualitative and quantitative steps to efficiently evaluate the likelihood that a substance may cause harm, given conservative estimates of exposure. At each step in the rapid screening process, any substance that appears to present a potential for harm will be identified as requiring further assessment. For those substances that pass through all steps of the rapid screening without being identified as requiring further assessment, the government will conclude that the substances do not require risk management.
In April 2013, the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health completed and published the final screening assessment report for 533 substances of low concern.
In June 2013, a draft rapid screening assessment for 140 substances of phase 1 of the Inventory update was published in the Canada Gazette for a 60-day public comment period. The final screening assessment report published on March 29, 2014, concludes that 117 of the substances do not meet any of the criteria set out under section 64 of CEPA 1999.
Summary of Screening Assessment Progress
Screening assessments are conducted to determine whether substances meet or are capable of meeting any of the criteria set out in section 64 of CEPA 1999. The results of the screening assessments are published in draft form on the Chemical Substances website, and the Ministers of the Environment and of Health publish a notice in the Canada Gazette, Part I to indicate that the draft assessments are available for comment. Interested parties can submit written comments during a 60-day public comment period. After taking into consideration comments received, the Ministers publish final assessment reports.
Table 1 lists the 2013-2014 assessment conclusions and proposed measures for 1063 existing substances (note that information on assessments of living organisms is included in Section 2.2 of this report).
Health Canada also continued to accept and review submissions for new substances used in products regulated by the Food and Drugs Act in order to determine their potential impacts from release to the environment. Health Canada also continued its Food and Drugs Act re-evaluation of food additives and food packaging materials and assessment of food contaminants.
Work also continued on the re-evaluation of previously approved pesticides according to legislated timelines and requirements under the Pest Control Products Act, as well as on continuing to monitor health and environmental incidents related to pesticides, analyzing trends and sales data, and taking regulatory action as needed.
Risk Management Activities
Along with the results of the screening assessment, the Ministers must publish in the Canada Gazette their final recommendation to the Governor in Council by choosing one of the following three “measures”: adding the substance to Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999 (the List of Toxic Substances), adding it to the Priority Substances List for further assessment, or proposing no further action in respect of the substance.
Ministers may recommend the addition of a substance to Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999 to the Governor in Council if a screening assessment shows that a substance meets one or more of the criteria set out in section 64 of CEPA 1999. The Governor in Council may then approve an order specifying its addition to Schedule 1. The decision to recommend adding a substance to Schedule 1 obliges the Ministers to develop a “regulation or instrument respecting preventive or control actions” within specific time periods.
|Substances (and Number of Substances)||Meet s. 64 Criteria||Proposed Measure||Draft NoticeTable notea||Final NoticeTablenotea|
|Batch 12 (2 substances reassessed)|
|Mar. 29, 2014|
|Azo Direct Dyes and Azo Reactive Dyes (69 substances)|
|Mar. 29, 2014|
|Rapid screening of substances from Phase One of the Domestic Substances List Inventory Update (117 substances)|
|June 15, 2013||Mar. 29, 2014|
|Certain substances on the Domestic Substances List used primarily as pharmaceuticals (28 substances)|
|Mar. 22, 2014|
Add to Schedule 1
|Feb. 8, 2014|
|Feb. 8, 2014|
|Jan. 25, 2014|
Add to Schedule 1
|Jan. 25, 2014|
|Industry-restricted petroleum and refinery gases (4 substances)|
Add to Schedule 1
|Apr. 28, 2012||Jan. 18, 2014|
|Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and 2 of its derivatives (3 substances)|
|Nov. 10, 2012||Nov. 30, 2013|
|Azo Solvent Dyes (22 substances)|
Yes (2 substances)
Add to Schedule 1 (for the 2 toxic substances)
|Nov. 2, 2013|
|Azo Disperse Dyes (73 substances)|
|Nov. 2, 2013|
|Monoazo Pigments (33 substances)|
|Nov. 2, 2013|
|Hexanedioic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (DEHA)|
Add to Schedule 1
|Oct. 12, 2013|
|Industry-restricted gas oils (2 substances)|
|May 12, 2012||Jul. 27, 2013|
|Industry-restricted heavy fuel oils (5 substances)|
|Apr. 21, 2012||Jul. 27, 2013|
|Industry-restricted low boiling-point naphthas (3 substances)|
|Apr. 21, 2012||Jul. 27, 2013|
|July 6, 2013|
|July 6, 2013|
|July 6, 2013|
|Batch 12 (4 substances)|
Yes (mitotane and chlorhexidine acetate)
NFA for 2 substances and add to Schedule 1 for 2 toxic substances
|July 6, 2013|
|Batch 12 (9 substances)|
|Jan. 8, 2011||June 29, 2013|
|Diarylide yellow pigments (5 substances)|
|June 15, 2013|
|Benzidine-based dyes and related substances (42 substances)|
|June 15, 2013|
|Dec. 17, 2011||June 1, 2013|
|Dec. 17, 2011||June 1, 2013|
|Site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases (40 substances)|
Add to Schedule 1
|Jan. 15, 2011||June 1, 2013|
|Fuel Oil No. 2|
Add to Schedule 1
|June 1, 2013|
|52 substances with high hazard potential on the Domestic Substances List|
|July 2, 2011||May 25, 2013|
|Rapid screening of substances of low concern (533 substances)|
|June 18, 2011||Apr. 20, 2013|
|Aviation fuels (3 substances)|
|Apr. 13, 2013|
|Fuel Oil No. 4, Fuel Oil No. 6 and Residual Fuel Oil (3 substances)|
|Apr. 13, 2013|
Table 2 lists the substances or groups of substances that the Ministers proposed to be added to Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999 in 2013-2014. Table 3 lists the substances or groups of substances that were added to Schedule 1 in 2013-2014.
|Substance||Draft OrderTable notec|
|40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases||Feb. 15, 2014|
|4 industry-restricted petroleum and refinery gases||Feb. 15, 2014|
- Table note c
The dates are those on which the draft orders were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I.
|Substance||Final OrderTable noted|
|Perfluorooctanoic acid, which has the molecular formula C7F15CO2H (PFOA), and its salts||Nov. 6, 2013|
|Compounds that consist of a perfluorinated alkyl group that has the molecular formula CnF2n+1 in which n=7 or 8 and that is directly bonded to any chemical moiety other than a fluorine, chlorine or bromine atom (precursors of PFOA)||Nov. 6, 2013|
|Perfluorocarboxylic acids that have the molecular formula CnF2n+1CO2H in which 8 ≤ n ≤ 20 (long-chain PFCA) and their salts||Nov. 6, 2013|
|Compounds that consist of a perfluorinated alkyl group that has the molecular formula CnF2n+1 in which 8 ≤ n ≤ 20 and that is directly bonded to any chemical moiety other than a fluorine, chlorine or bromine atom (long-chain PFCA precursors)||Nov. 6, 2013|
- Table note d
The dates are those on which the final orders were published in the Canada Gazette, Part II.
The CMP uses a wide range of risk management instruments, including regulations, pollution prevention plans, environmental performance agreements, permits, substance lists, guidelines, codes of practice and significant new activity notification provisions. These instruments can address any aspect of the substance’s life cycle, from the research and development stage through manufacture, use, storage, transport and ultimate disposal or recycling.
In addition to implementing existing risk management instruments during the reporting period, the CMP published 8 final risk management instruments to address 14 toxic substances or groups of substances as well as 1 proposed instrument to address another substance.
In general, when a draft risk assessment proposes a conclusion that the substance is “toxic” under CEPA 1999, the CMP develops and publishes a risk management scope at the same time as the draft assessment report. Risk management scopes are used as discussion documents to engage stakeholders on potential risk management actions. A scope briefly describes the health or environmental concern, the activities potentially impacted and the type of risk management actions being considered. In 2013-2014, scopes were published for the following substances:
- mitotane and chlorhexidine acetate (Challenge Batch 12)
- Fuel Oil No. 2 (Petroleum Sector Stream 3)
- BDTP and ethylbenzene (legacy substances)
- Azo Disperse Dyes, Solvent Yellow 77 and Pigment Red 4 (Aromatic Azo and Benzidine-based Substance Grouping)
Similar to the risk management scopes, when the final screening assessment report concludes that a substance is “toxic” under CEPA 1999, a risk management approach document is developed and published at the same time as the final risk assessment report. The risk management approach document provides a more detailed description of the risk management being considered. It builds on the risk management considerations outlined in the risk management scope document and considers new information, including comments, received during the above-mentioned 60-day comment period. The release of a risk management approach document is followed by a 60-day public comment period, providing additional opportunity for stakeholders to comment on the proposed risk management actions. In 2013-2014, risk management approaches were published for the following substances:
- site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases (this covered 40 substances)
- petroleum and refinery gases (4 substances)
On June 22, 2013, Environment Canada published proposed Regulations Amending the PCB Regulations and Repealing the Federal Mobile PCB Treatment and Destruction Regulations. The amendments address the practical challenges of identifying and removing from service certain electrical equipment containing PCBs by extending their end-of-use timelines to 2025. They also repeal the Federal Mobile PCB Treatment and Destruction Regulations, which are no longer required.
The PCB Regulations have been successful in achieving the first of their key objectives, specifically, the destruction of PCBs that were in storage when the Regulations came into force in 2008. The Regulations include limits on how long PCBs can remain in use and in storage, and require their destruction. At the end of 2013, there were 626 tonnes of PCBs still in use and 30 tonnes of PCBs in storage. Since 2008, 2442 tonnes of PCBs have been destroyed.
In 2013-2014, Health Canada prepared tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) regulations for publication in the Canada Gazette, Part II under the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act. Work also continued to advance a risk management measure and regulations on 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethanol (DEGME).
Government Operations and Federal and Aboriginal Lands
Part 9 of CEPA 1999 provides the authority to make regulations, objectives, guidelines and codes of practice that apply to departments, boards and agencies of the Government of Canada, federal works and undertakings, federal land, Aboriginal land, persons on that land and other persons insofar as their activities involve that land, and Crown corporations.
The Storage Tank Systems for Petroleum Products and Allied Petroleum Products Regulations seek to reduce the risk of contaminating soil and groundwater as a result of spills and leaks of petroleum products and allied petroleum products from storage tank systems. The Regulations also establish technical standards for the design and installation of storage tank systems as well as a registry.
In 2013-2014, there were 1 028 new storage tank identifications submitted to Environment Canada through the Federal Identification Registry of Storage Tank Systems. To date, 1 285 regulatees have identified approximately 17 000 storage tanks to Environment Canada through the Federal Identification Registry of Storage Tank Systemsdatabase for a total volume capacity of 2.57 billion litres of petroleum and allied petroleum products.
In October 2013, a consultation report summarizing and consolidating the feedback received during face-to-face consultation meetings regarding the proposed revisions to the Federal Halocarbon Regulations, 2003 was published on Environment Canada’s Ozone website.
Pollution Prevention Planning Notices
The provisions within Part 4 of CEPA 1999 allow the Minister of the Environment to issue a “notice” to require designated persons to prepare, implement and report on pollution prevention (P2) plans for toxic substances. P2 Planning Notices provide the flexibility for industry to determine the best methods within their processes and activities to meet the risk management objective within the Notice.
Active Pollution Prevention Planning Notices
During 2013-2014, there were six active P2 Planning Notices covering nonylphenol and its ethoxylates contained in products; inorganic chloramines and chlorinated wastewater effluent; polyurethane and other foam sector (except polystyrene) - toluene diisocyanates; cyclotetrasiloxane, octamethyl (siloxane D4) in industrial effluents; BPA; and synthetic rubber manufacturing sector - isoprene.
Synthetic rubber manufacturing sector - isoprene
- A final P2 planning notice to address harmful substances that are released from resin and synthetic rubber manufacturing industries was published in the Canada Gazette, Part I on June 9, 2012. The first substance to be addressed is isoprene.
Polyurethane and other foam sector (except polystyrene) - toluene diisocyanates
- All 14 facilities subject to this P2 notice submitted interim progress reports by the November 26, 2013 deadline. More information is available in the Performance Report - Pollution Prevention Planning Notice for the Polyurethane and Other Foam Sector (except Polystyrene) in Respect of Toluene Diisocyanates (TDIs).
Cyclotetrasiloxane, octamethyl- (Siloxane D4) in industrial effluents
- In December 2013, Environment Canada published a performance report summarizing the information that has been reported by facilities subject to this P2 notice. More information is available in the Performance Report: Pollution Prevention Planning and Siloxane D4.
Environmental Performance Agreements
An Environmental Performance Agreement is negotiated around the key principles and design criteria outlined in Environment Canada’s Policy Framework for Environmental Performance Agreements.
Active agreements include the Environmental Performance Agreement on production of hydrochlorofluorocarbons in Canada with E.I. DuPont Canada Company, the Environmental Performance Agreement respecting perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and their precursors in perfluorinated products sold in Canada, the Refractory Ceramic Fibre Environmental Performance Agreement, and the Environmental Performance Agreement Respecting Bisphenol A in Paper Recycling Mill Effluents. Detailed information about these agreements is available online.
Environmental Performance Agreement with the Vinyl Council of Canada and the Tin Stabilizers Association
Under this five-year agreement (2008-2013), which expired on March 9, 2013, 33 facilities committed to implement a best management practices guideline to minimize releases of the organotin-based stabilizers used in polyvinyl chloride processing. Environment Canada and the Vinyl Council of Canada are currently discussing options to ensure the continued application of the guideline by all vinyl compounding facilities using tin stabilizers in Canada.
Environmental Quality Guidelines
Environmental quality guidelines provide benchmarks for the quality of the ambient environment. Where federal priorities align with those of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) (i.e., those of the various provincial and territorial jurisdictions), the federal environmental quality guidelines will be tabled with the CCME for consideration as Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines (CEQGs). Table 4 lists the CEQGs that were published or being developed nationally through the CCME in 2013-2014. During the same period, Environment Canada developed draft Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines for various CMP substances (Table 5).
|Environmental Compartment||Published||In Progress|
|Environmental Compartment||Published||In Progress|
Note: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA).
On November 30, 2013, Environment Canada also published the Guidelines for the Reduction of Dyes Released from Pulp and Paper Mills, for the risk management of MAPBAP acetate. The guidelines are intended to limit MAPBAP acetate releases into water from pulp and paper mills by setting retention standards for MAPBAP acetate, performance criteria for the effluent treatment system and containment measures.
Substance-specific Risk Management Results
Canada has reduced its domestic sources of anthropogenic (human-induced) mercury releases by 90% since the 1970s. However, transboundary mercury accounts for more than 95% of mercury deposition in Canada. The government is committed to taking further actions at home and internationally to minimize and, where feasible, eliminate anthropogenic mercury releases.
Canada has actively participated on the intergovernmental negotiating committee for the preparation of a global, legally binding treaty on mercury, which was established by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme in 2009. Negotiations were launched in 2010 and were concluded at the fifth negotiating session in January 2013, with over 140 governments agreeing to the final treaty text of the new Minamata Convention on Mercury. Canada signed the convention as soon as it was open for signature, in October 2013, and is currently in the process of conducting an analysis of its ability to meet the obligations in order to ratify the agreement. The convention will enter into force once 50 countries have ratified it, likely within 2 to 3 years.
Significant New Activity Requirements
A Significant New Activity requirement can be applied to a substance so that any major changes in the way it is used are reported to the government. This ensures that departmental experts can evaluate whether a substance poses a new or increased risk to human health or the environment, and determine if risk management should be considered as a result of the new use.
In 2013-2014, a notice of intent to apply the Significant New Activity provisions of CEPA 1999 was published for 1 substance on the Domestic Substances List, and final orders were published for 66 substances on the Domestic Substances List (Table 6), including 11 substances meeting one or more of the criteria set out in s.64 of CEPA 1999. A person who intends to use, manufacture or import any of these substances for a new activity must provide the prescribed information.
|Assessment||Substances meeting s. 64||Number of Substances||Notice of IntentTable notee||Final OrderTable notee|
|1 substance||Nov. 16. 2013||Pending|
|1 substance||Nov. 26, 2011||May 8, 2013|
|2 substances||Mar. 3, 2012||Aug. 28, 2013|
|4 substances||Jul. 28, 2012||Jan. 15, 2014|
|4 substances||Sep. 15, 2012||Mar. 12, 2014|
|3 substances||Jan. 8, 2011||Jul. 3, 2013|
|52 substances||Jul. 2, 2011||May 22, 2013|
- Table note e
The dates are those on which the notices of intent and final orders were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I and Part II, respectively. Note that registration of final orders usually occurs before the order is published.
Of the 506 notifications for new substances that were assessed under CEPA 1999 in 2013-2014, the Minister issued 9 Significant New Activity Notices (Table 7) on new chemicals and polymers. Ten SNAcs that had previously been in place were rescinded based on new information received (Table 8).
|Substance||Publication DateTable notef|
|Germanium dioxide, CAS Registry No. 1310-53-8||May 22, 2013|
|2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, alkyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene, methyl 2-methyl-2- propenoate and 2-oxiranylmethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate, tert-Bu peroxide-initiated (No. 17122)||Jun. 15, 2013|
|Acetamide, N,N′-(ethenylmethylsilylene)bis[N-ethyl-, CAS Registry No. 87855-59-2||Jul. 27, 2013|
|Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (No. 17192)||Aug. 24, 2013|
|Acetamide, N,N’-(ethenylmethylsilylene)bis[N-ethyl-, CAS Registry No. 87855-59-2||Sep. 11, 2013|
|Alanine, N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)-, trisodium salt, CAS Registry No. 164462-16-2||Sep. 11, 2013|
|Silane, triethoxy(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)-, CAS Registry No.51851-37-7||Sep. 21, 2013|
|Dodecanoic acid, 3-[[3-[[[2,2-dimethyl-3-[(1-oxododecyl)oxy] propylidene]amino]methyl]-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexyl]imino]-2,2- dimethylpropyl ester, CAS Registry No. 932742-30-8 (No. 17420)||Feb. 22, 2014|
|Silane, trimethoxy[3-(oxiranylmethoxy)propyl]-, hydrolysis products with silica||Mar. 22, 2014|
- Table note f
The dates are those on which the final notices or orders were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I.
|Substance||Publication DateTable noteg|
|2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl ester, polymer with 1,1-dichloroethene and alkyl 2-propenoate (No. 16138)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|Siloxanes and silicones, substituted alkyl Me, di-Me, Me substituted alkyl, polymers with stearyl acrylate, polyfluoro methacrylate and vinyl chloride (No. 14888)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|2-Propenoic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomer with 2-mercaptoethanol, polyalkyleneglycol acrylate, polyalkyleneglycol polyacrylate and 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl 2-propenoate (No. 15312)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|2-Propenoic acid, 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl ester, polymer with polyalkyleneglycol acrylate (No. 15313)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|Polyfluoro acrylate, polymer with chloroethene (No. 15314)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|Polyfluoro acrylate, polymer with chloroethene (No. 15315)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl ester, telomer with 1-dodecanethiol and octadecyl 2j-propenoate, CAS Registry No. 1259487-19-8 (No. 16266)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, polymer with 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate, α-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl) ω-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) and 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8tridecafluorooctyl 2-propenoate, sodium salt, CAS Registry No. 1158951-86-0 (No. 16267)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, polymer with 1-ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 2-propenoic acid and 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl 2-propenoate, sodium salt, CAS No. 1206450-10-3 (No. 16268)||Sep. 21, 2013|
|2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) and polyfluorooctyl acrylate (No. 15441)||Sep. 21, 2013|
- Table note g
The dates are those on which the final notices or orders were published in the Canada Gazette,Part I.
Following notification, when the assessment of a new substance identifies a risk to human health or the environment, CEPA 1999 empowers the Minister of the Environment to intervene prior to or during the earliest stages of its introduction into Canada. In this case, there are three actions that may be taken. The Minister may:
- permit the manufacture or import of the substance subject to specified conditions; or
- prohibit the manufacture or import of the substance; or
- request additional information considered necessary for the purpose of assessment. The notifier shall not manufacture or import the substance until supplementary information or test results have been submitted and assessed.
If the Minister suspects that a significant new activity (SNAc) in relation to the substance may result in the substance’s becoming “toxic,” a SNAc Notice may be published in the Canada Gazette, Part I for the substance.
Of 506 notifications received in 2013-2014, the Minister issued 8 Ministerial Conditions (Table 9), and no prohibitions.
|Substance||Publication DateTable noteh|
|Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], α-sulfo-ω-hydroxy-, C12-13-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts, CAS Registry No. 958238-81-8 (No. 17072)||Apr. 6, 2013|
|Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], α-sulfo-ω-hydroxy-, C14-15-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts, CAS Registry No. 958238-82-9 (No. 17073)||Apr. 6, 2013|
|Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], α-sulfo-ω-hydroxy-, C16-17-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts, CAS Registry No. 958238-83-0 (No. 17074)||Apr. 6, 2013|
|Amines, N,N,N’-trimethyl-N’-alkyltrimethylenedi, reaction products with sodium chloroacetate (No. 17160)||Jun. 15, 2013|
|2-Propanone, reaction products with phenol, CAS Registry No. 72161-28-8 (No. 17202)||Jul. 20, 2013|
|Formaldehyde, reaction products with bishenol A and diethylenetriamine, CAS Registry No. 72361-54-7 (No. 17269)||Nov. 23, 2013|
|Benzene, 1,1’-(1-Methylethylidene)bis[3,5-dibromo-4-(2,3dibromopropoxy)-, CAS Registry No. 21850-44-2 (No. 17312)||Nov. 30, 2013|
|Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], α-sulfo-ω-hydroxy-, branched alkyl ethers, sodium salts (No. 15543a)Table notei||Dec. 21, 2013|
Export Control List
Under Schedule 3 of CEPA 1999, the Export Control List (ECL) includes substances whose export is controlled because their use in Canada is prohibited or restricted, or because Canada has agreed, through an international agreement that requires notification or consent of the country of destination before export, such as the Rotterdam Convention, to control their export. CEPA 1999 requires exporters to submit prior notice of export with respect to substances on the ECL. In 2013-2014, 75 export notices were submitted to the Minister of the Environment. Certain exports of substances on the ECL require an export permit. In 2013-2014, two permits were issued by the Minister of the Environment.
On March 29, 2014, the Minister of the Environment published a draft order amending the ECL to move from one part of the ECL to another, two substances or groups of substances that have been added to the Rotterdam Convention.
|Substance or Group of Substances||Description|
|Azinphos-methyl (CAS 86-50-0)||Proposed for addition to Part 1 of the Export Control List|
Perfluorooctane sulfonates, perfluorooctane sulfonamides and perfluorooctane sulfonyles, including:
|Proposed for addition to Part 2 of the Export Control List|
2.2 Living Organisms
Products of biotechnology that are living organisms are regulated for health and safety purposes by a variety of federal departments and agencies across the government. For example, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency is an important regulator of crop plants and micro-organisms used in animal feeds, fertilizers and veterinary biologics. CEPA 1999 sets the federal standard for assessment and risk management of new and existing living organisms. Other Canadian legislation meeting this standard is listed in Schedule 4 of CEPA 1999. Living organisms imported or manufactured for a use regulated under one of those acts are exempted from the New Substances provisions in CEPA 1999. Living organisms used for other purposes, not covered by existing federal legislation, are regulated under CEPA 1999. These include naturally occurring and genetically modified organisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and higher organisms) used for various environmental, industrial and commercial purposes.
CEPA 1999 establishes an assessment process for living organisms that are new animate products of biotechnology, which mirrors provisions in Part 5 of CEPA 1999 respecting new substances that are chemicals or polymers. In addition, paragraph 74(b) of the Act requires that all living organisms on the Domestic Substances List (about 68 existing micro-organisms) undergo a screening assessment to determine whether the living organism is toxic or capable of becoming toxic.
Monitoring, Research and Risk Assessment Activities
Government research on living organisms focuses on determining hazardous characteristics and the pathogenicity potential of various biotechnology microbes in order to support screening assessments. The research is coordinated jointly with regulators at Health Canada and Environment Canada and focuses principally on micro-organisms on the CEPA 1999 Domestic Substances List (DSL).
During 2013-2014, the timeline for completing screening assessments of CEPA 1999 DSL micro-organisms was accelerated to March 2016 (originally set for March 2020). Research focused on supporting the efficient screening assessment of these micro-organisms. This was done through the development of more rapid genomic methods for confirming micro-organism identity and for identifying determinants of pathogenicity by conducting organism-specific testing for determining potential pathogenicity characteristics, and conducting exposure assays for toxicity assessment.
In addition, research continued on a number of subjects, including assessing the exposure effects of a mixture of micro-organisms used for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil and water, and detection of all microbial species within a microbial consortium. Data summary reports on several fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and bacteria (e.g., Engerobacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus) were completed. Some of these results have already been incorporated in screening assessment reports. Ultimately, the research outputs will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals.
Risk Assessment of New Animate Products of Biotechnology
During 2013-2014, 33 notifications were received and assessed pursuant to the New Substances Notification Regulations (Organisms) for new animate products of biotechnology, and 8 notifications were completed. The remaining notifications are still within the various stages of the assessment process.
Risk Assessment of Existing Animate Products of Biotechnology
Environment Canada and Health Canada jointly perform the screening assessment of micro-organisms listed on the Domestic Substances List. In 2013-2014, draft Screening Assessments for Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and two strains of micro-organisms identified as Priority C (lower hazard) were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I for a 60-day public comment period. The final Screening Assessment of eight strains of micro-organisms identified as Priority C was also published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, continuing the rapid screening approach for lower-priority organisms (see Table 11). Work continues on the remaining screening assessments for several other Domestic Substances List micro-organisms of high and medium priority.
The Technical Expert Group, composed of independent scientific experts from academia, industry, public advocacy groups and other federal government departments, continued providing advice on the process and validating the scientific basis of screening assessments and their conclusions.
|Substances (and Number of Substances)||Meet s. 64 Criteria||Proposed Measure||Draft NoticeTable notej||Final NoticeTable notej|
|NFATable notek||Dec. 7, 2013|
|Micro-organisms in Lot 2 of Priority C (2 micro-organisms)|
|NFA||Dec. 7, 2013|
|Micro-organisms in Lot 1 of Priority C (8 micro-organisms)|
|NFA||Jan. 12, 2013||Dec. 7, 2013|
|NFATable notek||Jul. 13, 2013|
Risk Management Activities
Significant New Activity Requirements
In 2013-2014, a notice of intent to apply the SNAcs provision was published for one existing living organism (Table 12).
|Assessment||Substances or Number of Substances||Notice of IntentTable notel||Final OrderTable notel|
|Bacillus Cereus||1 substance||Jul. 13, 2013||Pending|
|Pseudomonas fluorescens||1 substance||Dec. 7, 2013||Pending|
- Table note l
The dates are those on which the notices of intent and final orders were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I and Part II, respectively.
In 2013-2014, two new living organisms were subjected to a SNAc Notice (Table 13). No new living organisms were subjected to Ministerial Conditions or Ministerial Prohibition.
|Genetically engineered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) containing a single copy of the opAFP-GHc2 transgene at the EO-1α locus (No. 16528)||Nov. 23, 2013|
|Pichia species strain (No. 17329)||Jan. 18, 2014|
- Table note m
The dates are those on which the final notices were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I.
2.3 Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases
Emissions of air pollutants threaten the health of Canadians, degrade the environment, contribute to smog and have associated socio-economic impacts. While significant progress has been made in reducing emissions, air pollution continues to have impacts on health, the environment and quality of life in Canada. Emissions originate from numerous domestic sources, such as industry and transportation, as well as transboundary transport of air pollution from other countries.
The government began actively addressing air pollution in the 1970s and 1980s, and continues to develop, amend and implement regulations under CEPA 1999 to reduce air pollutant emissions from vehicles, engines and fuels, and from consumer and commercial products. In addition, federal air emission controls apply to a limited number of industrial sectors such as secondary lead smelters, vinyl chloride plants, asbestos mines and pulp mills.
In October 2012, federal, provincial and territorial environment ministers agreed to begin implementation of a new national Air Quality Management System. Under the Air Quality Management System, the federal government is responsible for developing/updating outdoor air quality standards and implementing new industrial emission requirements using regulatory and non-regulatory instruments under CEPA 1999. More ambitious air quality standards for fine particulate matter and ground-level ozone were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, on May 25, 2013. They will be used by jurisdictions to guide local air quality management actions and for issuing permits to industrial facilities. Government officials have begun developing standards for sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, and completion is expected in 2015.
A phased-in approach is being taken to implement the industrial emission requirements. The first phase of industrial requirements is to be published in a single, consolidated regulation, the proposed Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations, which set emissions limits for industrial boilers and heaters, stationary spark-ignition engines, and kilns used in cement manufacturing facilities. The proposed regulations will be published in the Canada Gazette, Part I in spring 2014.
The government is implementing a sector-by-sector regulatory approach for greenhouse gases. Regulations are already in place for two of Canada’s largest sources of emissions: the transportation sector and coal-fired electricity generation.
For additional information about emission-reporting activities, visit the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators, the National Pollutant Release Inventory and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report websites.
Monitoring, Research and Risk Assessment Activities
In Canada, atmospheric monitoring is carried out through partnerships and/or collaborations between the provincial, territorial and federal governments. Due to the fact that atmospheric issues such as intercontinental transport of air pollution and the depletion of the ozone layer are a global concern and in many instances require global solutions, partnerships and collaboration with international organizations and agencies are essential.
Ambient (outdoor) air quality monitoring provides the foundation for the evaluation of progress relative to the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (see below), for health research and for assessments of the impact of air pollution on Canadians.
In 2013-2014, a broad range of monitoring activities was undertaken in support of the Clean Air Regulatory Agenda, which focuses on specific pollutants such as particulate matter, ozone, NOx and SO2 as well as others.
In June 2013, cooperation between the provincial, territorial and federal governments under the National Air Pollution Surveillance Program was strengthened by the completion of a renewed formal Memorandum of Understanding between the partners.
Efforts continued in tandem under the National Air Pollution Surveillance program and the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network to measure air quality at urban, rural and regionally representative sites in order to understand patterns and trends of specific atmospheric pollutants. The Canadian Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network includes observations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) from 16 measurement sites across Canada. Environment Canada contributed or made available atmospheric monitoring data to the public on national (e.g., Government of Canada Open Data Portal) and international (e.g., WMO World Data Centre for GHGs) databases.
In addition to ongoing data collection and reporting on a wide range of environmental issues, monitoring efforts in 2013-2014 also included upgrades to monitoring technologies, data reporting, data accessibility and database infrastructure.
Environment Canada undertakes scientific research that focuses on numerical predication modelling, measurements and atmospheric chemistry studies related to air pollutants and GHGs as well as emissions research and measurements related to the transportation and fuel sectors. These activities ensure that policy and regulatory actions are informed by sound and relevant science and allow decision makers to evaluate that the measures taken achieve their intended effects.
Specifically, air quality research efforts help quantify priority air pollutants and determine trends, improve and validate air quality predictions both in the near term and into the future within the global context, as well as enhance understanding of the impacts of air pollutant emission sources on Canadians and the environment.
Environment Canada’s GHG research program focuses on monitoring and modelling of GHGs to quantify sources and sinks in a continental and global context, and to model the climate system response to changing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs.
Health Canada conducts research and assesses the health risks of indoor and outdoor air pollutants to better understand the health impacts posed by these pollutants. This knowledge is used to inform the development of government and private sector air quality management strategies, to support the analysis of the benefits and costs of government regulations, and to assist Canadians in taking action to protect their health.
Health Canada and Environment Canada work jointly on research that links air pollutants to human health. Research completed in 2013-2014 included topics pertaining to health impacts of exposure to particulate matter (including diabetes, respiratory illness, blood vessels, hypertension, black carbon, volatile organic compounds and ammonia emissions from fertilizers) and indoor air quality.
During 2013-2014, a number of research projects were initiated on topics including effects of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter on cancer incidence and mortality in the Canadian Breast Cancer screening cohort; impact of woodsmoke on hospital visits; long-term effects of air pollution on Canadian women; development of a better method to model dry deposition of atmospheric particles; and the delivery of an intensive air monitoring campaign (summer 2013) to measure pollutants within the airshed management system for the Alberta oil sands.
Ongoing research continued on a wide range of air pollution and GHG topics, including health impacts of exposure to air pollutants from a variety of sources; health impacts of long-term exposure to air pollutants; exposure to and better characterization of diesel exhaust particulate; the effectiveness of the Air Quality Health Index in small towns and rural areas; air emissions from refineries/industrial complexes and children’s respiratory health; characterization of atmospheric aerosols; exposure to fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide and the related breast and prostate cancer risks; levels of semi-volatile organic compounds indoors in residences; GHG sources and sinks; the role of GHGs in the climate system; improving analytical tools for assessing atmospheric aerosols from vehicles; emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines; atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury; understanding and predicting air quality at high resolution in airsheds of particular interest from a human health or environmental perspective (e.g., urban); understanding the potential environmental impact of exhaust emissions from marine engines with the increase in shipping activity in the Arctic; understanding the linkages between air quality and weather; understanding the impact of specific emissions sources on air quality; renewable fuels operation in cold temperature; non-criteria exhaust emissions from new engine technologies; and health impacts of biodiesel fuels.
Health Canada scientists published more than 50 air pollution research papers in 2013-2014. These included reports on intensive health study that was conducted in the vicinity of the Sault Ste. Marie Steel Mill and investigations of the effects of traffic-related air pollutants on heart disease, asthma and stroke. Health Canada, Statistics Canada and Environment Canada scientists published the largest air pollution cohort study in the world, showing a relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes, even at relatively low levels of air pollution. Research studies also supported the development of Health Canada’s air pollution information tools: the Air Quality Health Index, Canada’s platform for air quality forecasts; the Air Health Indicator, which tracks trends over time; and the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, which is used to quantify and monetarize air pollution health impacts for standard setting, regulatory impact assessments and other purposes. Several papers were published on the interaction of air pollution and weather and the implications to the health of Canadians. Indoor air studies published during this year included investigations of the benefits of air cleaners, and several studies of levels of metals, phthalates and volatile organic compounds in indoor environment.
Environment Canada scientists published more than 100 research papers related to air pollutants and GHGs in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Environmental research topics included satellite measurements of emissions; development and evaluation of high-resolution air quality forecasting models; modelling of global and regional climate response to GHGs; detection and attribution analyses of climate change; the carbon cycle in the Earth system; black carbon (measurements, characterization, ship emissions), engine or traffic emissions (furthering understanding of sources and sinks); hybrid and battery electric vehicle operation; atmospheric mercury (sources, concentrations, snowpack, sea ice, deposition); ultrafine particles; deposition and modelling of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; particle phase organic compounds; atmospheric aerosols; atmospheric chemistry; and air mass transport of flame retardants and pesticides.
Environment Canada scientists participated in a World Meteorological Organization assessment of global precipitation chemistry and deposition, completed in 2013.
Health Canada completed a risk assessment of sulphur dioxide and continued to assess the impacts of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air and of the health impacts associated with emissions from the use of gasoline and diesel fuel in transportation. These documents will be published between 2014 and 2016.
Risk Management Activities
Air Quality Guidelines
The Residential Indoor Air Quality Guidelines summarize the health risks posed by specific indoor pollutants, based on a review of the best scientific information available at the time of the assessment. They summarize the known health effects, detail the indoor sources and provide a recommended exposure level below which health effects are unlikely to occur. When it is not feasible to establish a numeric guideline, guidance documents are developed. Both guideline and guidance documents provide recommendations on strategies to reduce exposure to pollutants.
In 2013-2014, the Minister of Health published the following notices regarding indoor air quality guidelines in the Canada Gazette, Part I:
- final residential indoor air quality guideline for naphthalene on June 15, 2013
- final residential indoor air quality guideline for benzene on September 14, 2013
Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards
In 2013-2014, the Ministers of the Environment and of Health established new, more stringent health-based Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter and ozone under CEPA 1999 (Canada Gazette, Part I, May 2013). Findings of the Canadian Smog Science Assessment completed by Health Canada and Environment Canada in 2011 guided the development of these new standards.
Vehicle, Engine, Equipment and Fuels Emissions
Canada has implemented and will continue to develop a series of regulations to reduce GHG emissions and smog-forming air pollutant emissions from vehicles, engines and fuels. Currently, there are regulations in place to reduce emissions from passenger cars, light-duty trucks, heavy-duty vehicles such as buses and tractor-trailers, motorcycles, recreational vehicles, construction and agricultural equipment, and small engines such as lawnmowers and chainsaws. Canada has also implemented several fuels regulations to limit air pollutant emissions such as sulphur. Current GHG emissions regulations in place cover on-road heavy-duty vehicles, passenger cars and light-duty trucks. The Renewable Fuels Regulations also limit GHG emissions by requiring a certain amount of renewable content in certain fuels.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations
Canada currently has regulations in place for heavy-duty vehicles for 2014 model years and beyond. The final Heavy-Duty Vehicle and Engine Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations were published on March 13, 2013 in the Canada Gazette, Part II and establish progressively more stringent standards over the 2014-2018 model years in alignment with the United States. Throughout 2013-2014, Environment Canada continued to work with the U.S. to align transportation emission regulations and remained committed to reducing pollutants from the transportation sector through the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement.
Also in alignment with the United States, the proposed amendments to the current Passenger Automobile and Light Truck Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I on December 8, 2012. The purpose of the amendments is to further limit GHG emissions from new cars and light trucks beginning with the 2017 model year, building on the existing regulations for model years 2011 to 2016. Over the lifetime operation of the 2017 to 2025 model year vehicles, the proposed regulations are projected to deliver additional GHG reductions of 162 megatonnes, roughly equivalent to one year of GHG emissions from Canada’s entire transportation sector. Throughout 2013-2014, Environment Canada undertook extensive consultations with industry stakeholders, provinces and territories to inform the development of the final regulations.
Also in 2013, the Minister of the Environment made an Interim Order modifying the operation of the regulations for model years 2011 to 2016 in order to maintain alignment with evolving U.S. regulations and while the Canadian regulations are being amended.
Air Pollutant Emissions Regulations
On June 8, 2013, Environment Canada published a Notice of Intent to develop regulations to further limit emissions of smog-forming air pollutants from new cars and light trucks and to reduce the sulphur content of gasoline, in alignment with recent U.S. Tier 3 standards that will take effect beginning in 2017. The establishment of the more stringent Tier 3 standards will require amendments to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations and the Sulphur in Gasoline Regulations. The Notice of Intent, published in Canada Gazette, Part I, provided an opportunity to initiate early consultations with provincial, territorial and Aboriginal governments, industry and other stakeholders in order to seek input that is taken into account in the development of these proposed amending regulations.
Renewable Fuels Regulations
On January 1, 2013, Environment Canada began implementation of the Renewable Fuels Electronic Reporting system, which will enable the regulated community to submit electronically the information required under the Renewable Fuels Regulations. The first set of compliance period reports were submitted by renewable fuel producers and importers using the electronic reporting system in February 2013. The remaining compliance reports, from petroleum producers and importers and trading system participants, were submitted in April, and audit reports from all regulated parties were submitted by June 30, 2013. Compliance verification of the data submitted is ongoing.
On November 6, 2013, Environment Canada published an amendment to the Renewable Fuels Regulations allowing a permanent national exemption from the 2% renewable content requirement in home heating oil, as well as a six-month extension to the exemption from the 2% renewable content requirement for diesel fuel for Canada’s Maritime provinces.
These measures were implemented to mitigate potential cost increases for Canadians who use oil to heat their homes and to provide flexibility for suppliers operating in the Maritime provinces to make adjustments required to comply with the Regulations.
The Renewable Fuels Regulations, combined with provincial regulations, were originally expected to lead to cumulative GHG emissions reductions of approximately 4 megatonnes per year once fully implemented. Removing heating oil from the Regulations will impact these GHG reductions, but the impact is expected to be less than a tenth of a megatonne per year.
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Program
Environment Canada administers a program to verify compliance with the following vehicle and engine regulations:
- Heavy-duty Vehicle and Engine Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations;
- Marine Spark-Ignition Engine, Vessel and Off-Road Recreational Vehicle Emission Regulations;
- Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations;
- Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations;
- On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations; and
- Passenger Automobile and Light Truck Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations.
The administrative requirements for companies subject to the Regulations include, but may not be limited to, the submission of importation declarations, evidence of conformity and annual end-of-model-year reports as well as the obligation to submit notices of defects and the provision of maintenance instructions. Some of the emissions regulations require companies to submit an annual report to demonstrate compliance with the regulations and to enable the Department to monitor the emissions performance of new vehicles offered for sale in Canada. These reports also permit the Department to track emissions credits/deficits. During 2013-2014, over 150 reports were submitted.
The Department also published the NOx fleet average Performance Report for the 2011 model year fleet, which covers passenger cars and light trucks.
Environment Canada also continued to develop its Vehicle and Engine Emissions Reporting Registry (VEERR), an electronic online tool to enable automakers to electronically submit their regulatory reports prescribed under the Passenger Automobile and Light Truck Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations. Data collected through the VEERR system also assists Natural Resources Canada to collect and compile the fuel consumption guide. In 2013-2014, Environment Canada initiated work to expand the functionality of the system to collect regulatory reports for heavy-duty vehicle GHGs and for air pollutant regulations.
In 2013-2014, Environment Canada performed a total of 116 emission tests on various types of vehicles and engines; tested four motorcycles following the delivery of U.S. EPA Test Orders; worked in collaboration with manufacturers and importers on 12 specimens as part of the Joint Engineering Evaluation; reviewed 406 submissions for products unique to the Canadian market for the 2013 and 2014 model years; and optimized resources in sharing data and test specimens with Transport Canada and the U.S. EPA. During this period, 39 notices of defect and other notifications were processed, affecting almost 200 000 vehicles and engines.
Environment Canada technical experts also worked in collaboration with enforcement officers, providing technical expertise and contributing to enforcement training sessions across the country. In 2013 and 2014, technical experts participated in 24 field inspections across Canada as part of the Enforcement SPARK Project. See Section 4 for detailed information on compliance and enforcement activities.
Electricity Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations
The first requirement under the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation Electricity Regulations was for companies to register their covered units by February 1, 2013. As of March 31, 2014, 9 companies had registered 44 units.
The Regulations set a stringent performance standard of 420 tonnes of CO2/GWh of electricity produced for new coal-fired electricity generation units and old units that have reached the end of their useful life. The performance standard will come into effect on July 1, 2015.
Pollution Prevention Planning
In 2013-2014, one P2 Planning Notice relating to air pollution continued to be active, covering base metal smelters and refineries, and zinc plants. Information about the notice and performance results is available online.
Environmental Performance Agreements
In 2013-2014, an Environmental Performance Agreement with Rio Tinto Alcan concerning atmospheric emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was ongoing.
2.4 Water Quality
Water quality is affected in many ways, including by nature's own patterns. The water quality of rivers and lakes changes with the seasons and geographic areas, even when there is no pollution present. It is also affected by human development, including disposal of human wastes, animal wastes and chemical substances into the environment.
Water quality is a shared responsibility with provinces and territories. The federal government addresses water quality under various statutes including the Fisheries Act. Work on water quality under CEPA 1999 includes scientific research, monitoring and leadership on the development of guidelines for water quality.
Monitoring, Research and Risk Assessment Activities
In addition to data collection and reporting on a wide range of environmental issues, monitoring efforts in 2013-2014 included upgrades to monitoring technologies and to data reporting and database infrastructure.
The targeted survey of selected emerging disinfection by-products in Canadian drinking water systems from source waters with high saline content was completed, and results are currently being compiled.
Both Health Canada and Environment Canada continued their water quality research activities. Health Canada conducts research on drinking water quality in support of the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. Environment Canada’s research included analytes in wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent; the environmental fate of azo benzidine compounds and their transformation products; and organophosphorus flame retardants in a variety of environmental compartments; biotoxins in algal blooms in the St. Lawrence River; degradation products from pharmaceuticals in surface waters; impacts of municipal effluents on wild fish in the St. Lawrence River; contaminant levels and toxicity in a system impacted by an abandoned mining facility; bioaccumulation and toxicity of cobalt and selenium under varying water quality parameters.
Health Canada continued research to develop methods for measuring disinfection by-products of emerging concern in drinking water.
Risk Management Activities
In addition to the activities listed below, risk management actions included in Section 2.1 on toxic substances also contribute to the overall improvement of water quality (e.g., the Guidelines for the Reduction of Dyes [MAPBAP Acetate] Released from Pulp and Paper Mills).
Drinking Water Quality Guidelines
Health Canada works in collaboration with the provinces and territories to develop the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Qualityand their technical documents. Priorities for developing guidelines are also established in consultation with the provinces and territories and are based on a national perspective.
Health-based guideline values are developed for drinking water contaminants that are found or expected to be found in drinking water supplies across Canada at levels that could lead to adverse health effects.
Guidance documents are also developed in relation to the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Qualityto provide general operational or management guidance related to specific drinking water issues (such as boil-water advisories) or to make risk assessment information available when a guideline is not deemed necessary (such as potassium from water softeners).
The Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality are used by all provinces and territories as a basis to establish their own regulatory requirements regarding the quality of drinking water in their jurisdictions.
Table 14 lists the guidelines that were completed or in progress in 2013-2014.
|Finalized - Publication Pending||In Progress|
Waste generally refers to any material, non-hazardous or hazardous, that has no further use, and which is managed at recycling, processing or disposal sites.
In Canada, the responsibility for managing and reducing waste is shared among the federal, provincial, territorial and municipal governments. Municipal governments are responsible for collecting and managing waste from homes for recycling, composting and disposal, while provincial and territorial authorities are responsible for the approval, licensing and monitoring of waste management operations.
For its part, Environment Canada exercises responsibilities with respect to international and interprovincial movements of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material, releases of toxic substances to the air, land and water, disposal at sea, and waste management activities on federal lands.
Monitoring, Research and Risk Assessment Activities
Disposal at Sea Site Monitoring Program
As required by CEPA 1999, representative disposal at sea sites are monitored to verify that permit conditions are met, and that scientific assumptions made during the permit review and site selection process are correct and sufficient to protect the marine environment. By monitoring disposal sites, Environment Canada is able to verify that the permitting of disposal is sustainable and that permit holders can have continued access to suitable sites. Where monitoring indicates a problem or where the site has reached its capacity over time, management action in the form of closing, moving or altering the site use can occur.
In 2013-2014, monitoring projects were completed at 16 ocean disposal sites nationally (or 19% of actively used sites).
Environment Canada’s Quebec Region carried out hydroacoustic surveys at eight disposal sites, two at sites in the Îles-de-la-Madeleine and six in Gaspésie, representing almost half of the most-used sites in the region. All the surveys showed that dredged material had been deposited within the authorized zones, that the volumes of dredged sediment still in place at the disposal sites matched the volumes reported by the proponents, and that management measures put in place remained adequate. The six surveys in Gaspésie also showed that the disposal sites were stable for the long term and no management measures were needed. The two sites in Baie de Plaisance, in the Îles-de-la-Madeleine, required management action, one because of the presence of a commercial species and the other for ship safety. Both disposal sites were closed and a new disposal site will be designated to replace the two sites in question.
Environment Canada’s Atlantic Region monitored five disposal sites. This included assessing the dispersiveness of a fisheries waste disposal site located in a small fishing community in Labrador and post-disposal bathymetric surveys at two dredged material disposal sites in Nova Scotia. The bathymetric surveys were conducted primarily for compliance purposes, with results demonstrating consistency with permit requirements. Long-term monitoring was initiated at an intertidal dredged material disposal site in Prince Edward Island to assess the potential for minor improvements to avian habitat, and at a shoreline confined-disposal facility in Nova Scotia to assess long-term structural stability. Activities at these sites in 2013-2014 consisted of collection and interpretation of high-resolution aerial imagery.
Environment Canada’s Pacific Region undertook monitoring at two disposal sites in October 2013, Point Grey and Five Finger. Benthic invertebrate sampling and processing was conducted. Surficial sediment samples were also collected for analysis for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, particle size, moisture, total organic nutrients, and total organic carbon. Sediment was collected at representative stations for the purposes of toxicity testing. Monitoring results are being compared with National Screening Levels to determine compliance with the Disposal at Sea Regulations. The results of the surveys will support Environment Canada in disposal site management and will contribute to a better understanding of the effects related to disposal activities both at the disposal sites and adjacent areas.
Risk Management Activities
In addition to the activities listed below, risk management actions described in Section 2.1 on toxic substances also contribute to the overall improvement of waste management.
Controlling the Movement of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material
CEPA 1999 provides authority to make regulations governing the export, import and transit of waste (including both hazardous and non-hazardous waste) and hazardous recyclable materials. It also provides authority to establish criteria for refusing an export, import or transit permit, should the waste or hazardous recyclable material not be managed in a manner that will protect the environment and human health.
Canada implements its international obligations as a party to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention), the OECD Decision on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Wastes Destined for Recovery Operations, and the Canada-United States Agreement on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste through the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations (EIHWHRMR) and the PCB Waste Export Regulations, 1996.
In 2013,Footnote2 Environment Canada processed more than 2 050 notices for proposed imports, exports and transits of hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials under the EIHWHRMR. The notices received covered 17 004 individual waste streams, which exhibited a range of hazardous properties such as being flammable, acutely toxic, oxidizing, corrosive, dangerously reactive and environmentally hazardous. Approximately 40 600 individual transboundary shipments of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material were reported in movement documents received by Environment Canada.
More than 99% of imports and 98% of exports of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials occurred between Canada and the United States. The United States is the only country that received, from Canada, shipments of hazardous wastes destined for disposal. The majority of hazardous recyclable materials that were not imported from the United States came from Nigeria, France and the United Kingdom. The hazardous recyclable materials that were not exported to the United States went to Germany, Belgium, Republic of Korea and Mexico.
The quantity of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material imported into Canada was 435 951 tonnes (t) in 2013. This represents an increase of more than 90 000 t or 26% over the total 2012 import quantity. Shipments destined for recycling totalled 245 110 t and represented about 56% of all imports in 2013. Hazardous recyclable material imported into Canada in greater quantities were batteries filled with acid, hydraulic fluids that contain metals, wastes having metals or metal carbonyl as constituents, and corrosive fluids. Hazardous wastes imported in greater quantities included wastes having metal constituents, waste containing halogenated organic solvents, unhalogenated solvents and wastes that contain or are contaminated with cyanides.
The quantity of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials exported was 516 174 t in 2013. This represents an increase of approximately 11 000 t or 2% from the 2012 figure. Shipments exported for recycling totalled 422 388 t and represented about 82% of all exports in 2013. Spent sulphuric acid, wastes from the manufacture, formulation and use of wood-preserving chemicals, wastes from oil/water or hydrocarbon/water mixtures or emulsions, aluminum dross and lead-acid batteries made up the majority of hazardous recyclable material exported abroad for recycling. Hazardous wastes exported in greater quantities included corrosive liquids, waste acidic or basic solutions, aluminum dross and waste from oil/water or hydrocarbon/water mixtures or emulsions.
Imports of hazardous recyclable materials in 2013 were shipped to five provinces: Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, British Columbia and Alberta. Except for New Brunswick, all of these also received waste for final disposal.
Exports of hazardous recyclable materials in 2013 originated from seven provinces: Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Except for Saskatchewan, exports of hazardous wastes for final disposal also originated from these same provinces.
Tables 15 and 16 list the quantities imported and exported from 2005 to 2013.
|Recyclables||174 983||164 903||237 141||262 337||221 778||217 663||243 491||243 434||245 110|
|Total imports||476 416||408 839||497 890||532 727||490 169||364 162||394 786||345 230||435 951|
|Recyclables||226 380||374 024||358 896||365 468||315 631||357 627||374 207||413 614||422 388|
|Total exports||327 746||474 538||460 497||482 680||420 865||428 367||460 707||505 461||516 174|
Please note that data are revised periodically as new information becomes available. Therefore, information presented here may differ from information published in other reports.
Disposal at Sea
Under the Act, most types of disposal of waste at sea in areas of the sea within Canadian jurisdiction and by Canadian ships in Canadian jurisdiction and in international waters requires a permit issued by Environment Canada.
The CEPA 1999 disposal at sea rules implement the London Convention and the Protocol to the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. A permit for disposal at sea will generally be issued only if it is the environmentally preferable and practical option. CEPA 1999 provides additional controls on disposal at sea, including:
- a prohibition on the export of a substance for disposal in an area of the sea under the jurisdiction of a foreign state or in its internal waters;
- a list of six substances for which a disposal at sea permit can be obtained (Schedule 5 of CEPA 1999);
- an assessment framework for reviewing permit applications based on the precautionary principle, which must be followed (Schedule 6 of CEPA 1999); and
- a statutory obligation to monitor selected sites.
For further information, consult the Disposal at sea webpage.
Canada and other parties to the London Convention and Protocol have been working to reduce barriers to compliance with the treaty. Workshops, guidance and technical assistance are offered to countries to aid their acceding to the London Protocol or to coming into compliance with it. In 2013, Canada participated in a workshop in Argentina for Latin American countries aimed at promoting accession to the Protocol.
Canada participates actively in the development of international guidance relevant to disposal at sea. Current projects include developing best practices for disposal related to offshore mining wastes and developing low-tech assessment guidance for dredged material. Guidance on dredge material assessment was completed in 2013-2014.
Following many years of work by Canada and other Parties, an amendment to the London Protocol was adopted by consensus of the Parties in October 2013 under the Chairmanship of Canada. The amendment is designed to create a global approach for ocean fertilization and potentially for other forms of marine geo-engineering where there is potential to cause harm to the marine environment. Parties, including Canada, will now need to look at ratifying the amendment to ensure domestic consistency with the London Protocol within the next few years. Cooperation with other bodies that are concerned with geo-engineering, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, is ongoing.
Disposal at Sea Permits
In 2013-2014, 84 permits were issued in Canada for the disposal of 5.8 million tonnes of waste and other matter (tables 17 and table18), compared with 91 permits for the disposal of 3.97 million tonnes in 2012-2013. Most of the material permitted for disposal was dredged material that was removed from harbours and waterways to keep them safe for navigation. Also permitted was excavated native till (geological matter) that is disposed of at sea in the lower mainland of British Columbia, where on-land disposal options for clean fill are extremely limited. Fish-processing waste is also permitted in remote communities where there is no access to reuse-and-recycling opportunities.
|Material||Quantity Permitted||Permits Issued|
4 702 750Table noten
1 040 000Table noten
5 800 755
- Table note n
Dredged material and geological matter were converted to tonnes using an assumed density of 1.3 tonnes per cubic metre.
|Prairie and Northern|
|Prairie and Northern|
|Pacific and Yukon|
|Pacific and Yukon|
|Dredged materialTable noteo|
1 300 650
2 754 700
|Geological matterTable noteo|
1 040 000
1 357 505
3 794 700
- Table note o
Dredged material and geological matter were converted to tonnes using an assumed density of 1.3 tonnes per cubic metre.
2.6 Environmental Emergencies
Part 8 of CEPA 1999 addresses the prevention of, preparedness for, response to and recovery from an uncontrolled, unplanned or accidental releases into the environment of substances that pose potential or actual harm to the environment or danger to human life or health. Part 8 provides the authority, among other things, for making regulations, guidelines and codes of practice. Part 8 also establishes a regime that makes the person who owns or has the charge, management or control of such a substance liable for restoring the damaged environment and for the costs and expenses incurred in responding to an environmental emergency.
The Environmental Emergency Regulations (referred to as the E2 Regulations) are made under Part 8 of CEPA 1999. The Regulationsrequire any person responsible for quantities, as specified in the Regulations, for substances listed in the Regulations, located at a place in Canada, to notify the Minister of the Environment in respect of those quantities and to prepare, document, implement, exercise and update an environmental emergency plan (E2 plan) for the place where the substance is located, if the total quantity of the substance on location including, if some or all of the substance is in a storage container, the maximum capacity of the storage container is equal to or greater than the regulated threshold quantity for the substance.
Environment Canada’s Environmental Emergencies website includes implementation guidelines for E2 plans, a common issues section and online notice filing. The website also provides public access to a database containing basic information about persons or places (e.g., company names and addresses) that are subject to the Regulations.
As of March 31, 2014, approximately 4700 regulatees had filed Notices Regarding the Identification of Substance and Place under the E2 Regulations. Of these regulatees, approximately 2900 were required to prepare E2 plans. The 7 most commonly identified substances were propane, anhydrous ammonia, butane, pentane, gasoline, hydrochloric acid and chlorine.
In 2013-2014, Environment Canada regional activities associated with the implementation of the E2 Regulations included hosting workshops and site visits for the regulated community, covering prevention, preparedness and response aspects for propane, tetrachloroethylene and ammonia, among other substances. Other themed workshops addressed E2 plan content and exercise design.
Environment Canada conducted preliminary public consultations in 2013-2014 in preparation for potential regulatory amendments. Using online surveys, webinars and meetings, Environment Canada solicited comments from current regulatees, potential future regulatees, Aboriginal communities and other interested parties on a number of potential amendments related to improving the protection of the environment and humans, improving the clarity and effectiveness of the E2 Regulations, and harmonizing the E2 Regulations with existing laws and regulations.
- Footnote 1
Under section 64 of CEPA 1999, “a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that
- (a) have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity;
- (b) constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends; or
- (c) constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health.”
- Footnote 2
Due to timelines associated with data processing, export and import quantities set out in this section of the report represent actual movement values that took place during the 2013 calendar year (from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013).
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