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Fleet Average NOx Emission Performance of 2009 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles

In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

Transportation Division
Environment Canada

January 2012

 


Disclaimer

This document provides a summary of data collected pursuant to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations. It does not in any way supersede or modify the requirements of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 or the Regulations made under that Act. In the event of an inconsistency between this document and the Act and/or the Regulations, the Act and the Regulations prevail.

 

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

1. Executive Summary

Under the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (hereafter referred to as the “Regulations”), each new light-duty vehicle, light-duty truck and medium-duty passenger vehicle is required to be certified by its manufacturer to one of the bins corresponding to those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency for which there are specific emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and other pollutants. In addition, manufacturers and importers of these vehicles are required to report on their fleet average NOx emission performance for each model year.

This report is the sixth annual performance report and it summarizes the fleet average NOx emission performance of the Canadian 2009 model-year fleet of vehicles. It includes the fleet average NOx value for each company as well as their emission credits/deficits. It also provides a comparison of the distribution of vehicles certified to the various emissions bins and the overall NOx performance with that of previous model years (i.e., 2004 to 2008 model years).

For the 2009 model year, 23 companies submitted end of model year reports comprising a total of 1 351 327 vehicles manufactured in Canada or imported into Canada for the purpose of first retail sale. Each individual company had a fleet average NOx value that was at or below the standard of 0.07 grams/mile, and all companies complied with the fleet averaging provisions of the Regulations based on their reports.

The average NOx value for the Canadian 2009 model year combined fleets of light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks and of heavy light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles is 0.06743109 grams/mile compared to a single combined fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile, and is continuing to decline. This trend is consistent with the objectives of the Regulations.

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2. Purpose

The purpose of this report is to summarize the fleet average NOx emission performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2009 model year (MY) based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports; furthermore, it is also to report on the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NOx emission program in achieving the environmental performance objectives.

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3. Introduction

On January 1, 2004, the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (hereafter referred to as the “Regulations”) came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999). These Regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines. The Regulations align Canada’s emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, medium-duty passenger vehicles, heavy-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines and on-road motorcycles with those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through incorporation by reference to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

The Regulations also establish fleet average NOx standards for light-duty vehicles(i) (LDV), light light-duty trucks(ii) (LLDT), heavy light-duty trucks(iii) (HLDT) and medium-duty passenger vehicles(iv) (MDPV). Each new LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV is required to be certified to one of the bins presented in Table 1, for which there are specific emission standards for NOx and other pollutants. A company’s choice of bin to which individual vehicle models are certified in a given model year is limited by the obligation to comply with the fleet average NOx standards associated with that model year. Table 2 presents the applicable fleet average NOx standards for a company’s fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV.

Table 1: Light-Duty Vehicle, Light Light-Duty Truck, Heavy Light-Duty Truck and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle Full Useful Life Exhaust Emission Standards
(grams/mile)
Bin
Number
NOxNMOGCOFormaldehydePM
11
0.9
0.28
7.3
0.032
0.12
10
0.6
0.156/0.230
4.2/6.4
0.018/0.027
0.08
 9
0.3
0.090/0.180
4.2
0.018
0.06
8
0.20
0.125/0.156
4.2
0.018
0.02
7
0.15
0.09
4.2
0.018
0.02
6
0.10
0.09
4.2
0.018
0.01
5
0.07
0.09
4.2
0.018
0.01
4
0.04
0.07
2.1
0.011
0.01
3
0.03
0.055
2.1
0.011
0.01
2
0.02
0.01
2.1
0.004
0.01
1
0.00
0.00
0.0
0.000
0.00

Notes:
1) The equivalent limits in units of grams/km are obtained by multiplying the grams/mile value by 0.621.
2) Bins 8 through 10 contain additional temporary, less stringent standards for certain pollutants and for certain vehicles.
3) Bin 11 was only available for MDPV for the 2004 to 2008 model years.
4) Bins 9 and 10 were only available for LDV and LLDT for the 2004 to 2006 model years and for HLDT and MDPV for the 2004 to 2008 model years.
5) Beginning in the 2009 model year, applicable standards are limited to bins 1 to 8 for all categories.

Table 2: Fleet Average NOx Standards
(grams/mile)
Model Year
LDV/LLDTHLDT/MDPV
2004
0.25
0.53
2005
0.19
0.43
2006
0.13
0.33
2007
0.07
0.20
2008
0.07
0.14
2009 and subsequent model years
0.07

A company’s fleet average NOx value is the weighted average based on the number of vehicles certified to each bin. The emission bins, fleet average NOx standards, and methods of calculating fleet average NOx values are aligned with those of the EPA; however, there are differences in the structure of the NOx averaging program in Canada, which is designed to recognize vehicles that are sold concurrently in Canada and the U.S. The regulatory requirements are structured to deliver fleet average emissions comparable to those of the U.S. while minimizing the regulatory burden on companies and enabling the marketing of vehicles in Canada independently from the U.S.

The Regulations require that all companies submit a report to the Minister of the Environment no later than May 1 after the end of each model year. The end of model year report must contain detailed information concerning the company’s fleet(s) and/or groups of vehicles, including information related to the following:

  • statements of allowable elections made by the company in complying with the fleet average NOx requirements of the Regulations, if any;
  • the applicable fleet average NOx standard;
  • the fleet average NOx value achieved by the company;
  • the values used in calculating the company fleet average NOx value;
  • calculation of NOx emission credits and/or deficits, if any;
  • balance of credits or deficits; and
  • credit transfers to or from the company, if any.

For more information regarding the calculation of fleet average NOx values and NOx emission credits or deficits please refer to the Regulations which can be found on the Environment Canada CEPA Registry. Reports for the 2004 to the 2008 model years can also be found on the CEPA Registry.

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4  Company Fleet Average NOx Emission Performance for the 2009 Model Year

4.1 Scope of Company Reports

Table 3 presents a list of the companies that submitted an end of model year report for the 2009 model year in accordance with the requirements of the Regulations, including the vehicle makes as well as the number of test groups covered by their reports.

Table 3: Scope of Company Reports
Company
MakesNumber of
Test Groups1
Aston Martin Lagonda LimitedAston Martin
2
BMW Group CanadaBMW, Mini, Rolls-Royce
20
Chrysler Canada Inc.Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep
27
Ferrari North America, Inc.Ferrari
3
Ford Motor Company of Canada, LimitedFord, Lincoln, Mercury
25
General Motors of Canada LimitedBuick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Hummer, GMC, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn
51
Honda Canada Inc.Acura, Honda
17
Hyundai Auto Canada Corp.Hyundai
14
Jaguar (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC)Jaguar
2
Kia Canada Inc.Kia
14
Land Rover (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC)Land Rover
4
Lotus Cars LimitedLotus
1
Maserati North America, Inc.Maserati
1
Mazda Canada Inc.Mazda
13
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc.Maybach, Mercedes, Smart
16
Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada, Inc.Mitsubishi
9
Nissan Canada Inc.Infiniti, Nissan
23
Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd.Porsche 
7
Subaru Canada, Inc.Subaru
4
Suzuki Canada Inc.Suzuki
6
Toyota Canada Inc.Lexus, Toyota
25
Volkswagen GroupAudi, Bentley, Lamborghini, Volkswagen
26
Volvo Cars of Canada Corp.Volvo
6

1 A test group is the basic classification unit that comprises LDV, LLDT, HLDT or MDPV having similar exhaust emission performances and that share all of the features described in section 1827, subchapter C, part 86 of the CFR.

A total of 23 companies submitted reports for the 2009 model year covering a total of 310 distinct test groups. It should be noted that certain test groups were common between companies that shared vehicle platforms or powertrains.

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4.2 Distribution of Light-Duty Vehicles, Light Light-Duty Trucks, Heavy Light-Duty Trucks and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles

Starting with the 2009 model year, companies are required to meet a single fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile for a combined fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV. Therefore, companies were not required to distinguish their LDV and LLDT fleet from their HLDT and MDPV fleet in their 2009 model year reports.

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4.3 Company Fleet Average NOx Values

Table 4 summarizes the total number of vehicles and average NOx values for each company’s combined fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV.

Table 4: Summary of Company Average NOx Values for the Combined Fleet of Light-Duty Vehicles, Light Light-Duty Trucks, Heavy Light-Duty Trucks and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles
Fleet Average NOx Standard = 0.07 grams/mile
Maximum NOx = 0.2 grams/mile (Bin 8)
Company
Total Number of VehiclesAverage NOx Value
(grams/mile)
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited
 135
0.0700
BMW Group Canada
26 571
0.070000
Chrysler Canada Inc.
147 722
0.0639232
Ferrari North America, Inc.
 75
0.070
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited
159 736
0.0572435
General Motors of Canada Limited
255 177
0.0699082
Honda Canada Inc.
147 352
0.0695283
Hyundai Auto Canada Corp.
109 813
0.0700000
Jaguar (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC)
1 038
0.07000
Kia Canada Inc.
35 691
0.070000
Land Rover (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC)
1 400
0.07000
Lotus Cars Limited
 44
0.070
Maserati North America, Inc.
 143
0.0700
Mazda Canada Inc.
47 160
0.068504
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc.
22 351
0.069524
Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada, Inc.
25 420
0.070000
Nissan Canada Inc.
86 875
0.070000
Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd.
1 616
0.07000
Subaru Canada, Inc.
20 768
0.070000
Suzuki Canada Inc.
10 648
0.068921
Toyota Canada Inc.
195 950
0.0682114
Volkswagen Group
50 282
0.070000
Volvo Cars of Canada Corp.
5 360
0.07000

Note: Fleet average NOx values are rounded to the same number of significant figures that are contained in the total number of vehicles in a company’s fleet.

The company average NOx values ranged from 0.0572435 grams/mile to 0.0700000 grams/mile for the fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV, and no companies reported a fleet average NOx value that was above the standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Fifteen out of twenty-three companies reported a fleet average NOx value that was equal to the fleet average NOx standard.

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4.4 NOx Emission Credits/Deficits for the 2009 Model Year and End of Model Year Balance

Table 5 summarizes the NOx emission credits/deficits obtained by each company for the 2009 model year. It also lists the balance of credits at the end of the 2009 model year for each company. Companies that elected to exclude their group of vehicles from compliance with the fleet average NOx standard, did not report credits or had a fleet average NOx value that was equal to the standard were assigned “0” for the “Total 2009 MY Credits”.

Table 5: NOx Emission Credits/Deficits for the 2009 Model Year and End of Model Year Balance
(vehicle-grams/mile)
Company
Initial
Balance1
Total 2009 MY
Credits1
New
Balance1
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited
 0
 04
 0
BMW Group Canada
 913
 04
 913
Chrysler Canada Inc.
41 020
 898
41 918
Ferrari North America, Inc.
 0
 02
 0
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited
37 732
2 038
39 770
General Motors of Canada Limited
75 874
 23
75 897
Honda Canada Inc.
19 975
 70
20 045
Hyundai Auto Canada Corp.
3 163
 04
3 163
Jaguar (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC)
 126
 04
 126
Kia Canada Inc.
4 721
 04
4 721
Land Rover (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC)
 953
 04
 953
Lotus Cars Limited
 0
 02
 0
Maserati North America, Inc.
 0
 02
 0
Mazda Canada Inc.
14 878
 71
14 949
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc.
 0
 11
 11
Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada, Inc.
 76
 03
 76
Nissan Canada Inc.
18 854
 03
18 854
Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd.
 456
 04
 456
Subaru Canada, Inc.
2 606
 04
2 606
Suzuki Canada Inc.
1 255
 11
1 266
Toyota Canada Inc.
26 005
 350
26 355
Volkswagen Group
 0
 04
 0
Volvo Cars of Canada Corp.
3 538
 04
3 538
Total
252 145
3 472
255 617

1 NOx emission credits/deficits are rounded to the nearest whole number. A negative sign (−) indicates a deficit.
2 The company elected to exclude their entire fleet, which is sold concurrently in Canada and the U.S., from compliance with the fleet average NOx standard pursuant to subsection 31(1) of the Regulations.
3 The company elected to exclude only parts of their fleet that satisfied the election from compliance with the fleet average NOx standard pursuant to subsection 31(1) of the Regulations. However, the average NOx value for their group of vehicles not subject to the election was equal to the fleet average NOx standard. Therefore, the company did not incur a deficit.
4 The company reported a fleet average NOx value that is equal to the fleet average NOx standard.

A total of 3 472 credits were generated by companies for the 2009 model year. No company incurred a deficit with respect to their 2009 model year fleet and no company reported a negative balance of credits at the end of the 2009 model year. Also, there were no transfers of credits to or from companies for the 2009 model year.

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4.5 Distribution of Bins and NOx Fleet Average Value for the Canadian Fleet

Table 6 summarizes the distribution of vehicles by the NOx standard of each bin. It also provides the calculated fleet average NOx value of the entire Canadian fleet for the 2009 model year.

Table 6: Distribution of Vehicles by the NOx Standard of Each Bin
Bin NumberNOx Standard (grams/mile)Total Number of Vehicles in "Bin"Percentage of Vehicles in "Bin"
11
0.9
N/A
N/A
10
0.6
N/A
N/A
9
0.3
N/A
N/A
8
0.20
4 040
0.30
7
0.15
0
0.00
6
0.10
0
0.00
5
0.07
1 246 221
92.22
4
0.04
 89 404
6.62
3
0.03
 10 272
0.76
2
0.02
1 390
0.10
1
0.00
0
0.00
Total Number of Vehicles in 2009 MY Fleet
1 351 327
NOx Fleet Average Value for the Canadian Fleet (grams/mile)
0.06743109
Fleet Average NOx Standard (grams/mile)
0.07

For the 2009 model year, almost all vehicles (99.7% of the fleet) were certified to a bin at or below the fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile. The NOx fleet average value for the Canadian fleet was 0.06743109 grams/mile, which is 3.7% below the standard.

Figure 1 depicts the changing distribution of the combined Canadian fleet by the NOx standard of each bin across the 2004 to 2009 model years. In addition, Figure 2 presents this information on a percentage basis to facilitate year to year comparison.

Figure 1: Distribution of the Canadian Fleet by Number of Vehicles in Each Bin

Figure 1 is a bar graph depicting the changing distribution of the Canadian fleet in absolute numbers of vehicles in each bin across the 2004 to 2009 model years.
Click image to enlarge it.

Figure 2: Distribution of the Canadian Fleet by the Percentage of Vehicles Relative to the Fleet in Each Bin

Figure 2 is a bar graph depicting the changing distribution of the Canadian fleet on a percentage basis in each bin across the 2004 to 2009 model years.
Click image to enlarge it.

4.6 Fleet Average NOx Values Trend

Figure 3 presents the average NOx values trend relative to the applicable standards since 2004 for both the LDV/LLDT and HLDT/MDPV fleets. The fleet average NOx value for the 2009 model year is shown as a single point as the fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV is now subject to a single combined fleet average standard of 0.07 grams/mile instead of two different standards.

Figure 3: Fleet Average NOx Values and Standards

Figure 3 is a graph presenting the average NOx values trend relative to the standard since 2004 for both the light-duty vehicle/light light-duty truck and heavy light-duty truck/medium-duty passenger vehicle fleets. Overall, the fleet average NOx value for the combined fleets of light-duty vehicles/light light-duty trucks and heavy light-duty trucks/medium-duty passenger vehicles decreased from 2004 to 2008. The fleet average NOx value for the 2009 model year continues to decrease and is 3.7% below the single combined fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile.
Click image to enlarge it.

Overall, the fleet average NOx value for the combined fleets of LDV/LLDT and HLDT/MDPV decreased from 2004 to 2008. The fleet average NOx value for the 2009 model year continues to decrease and is 3.7% below the single combined fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile.

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5. Conclusions

This is the sixth year that companies were subject to the fleet average NOx requirements under the Regulations. A total of 23 companies submitted reports for a total of 310 distinct test groups comprising 1 351 327 vehicles that were either manufactured in Canada or imported into Canada for the purpose of first retail sale.

The fleet average NOx value for the 2009 model year was 0.06743109 grams/mile compared to a single combined fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Each individual company had a fleet average NOx value that was at or below the standard, and all companies complied with the fleet averaging provisions of the Regulations based on their reports.

The fleet average NOx value for the combined fleets of LDV/LLDT and HLDT/MDPV continues to decrease which is consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the Regulations.


(i) Light-duty vehicles generally consist of passenger cars.
(ii) Light light-duty trucks generally consist of vans, sport utility vehicles and pick-up trucks having GVWR of 2 722 kg (6 000 pounds) or less.
(iii) Heavy light-duty trucks generally comprise vans, sport utility vehicles and pick-up trucks having a GVWR of more than 2 722 kg (6 000 pounds) and up to 3 856 kg (8 500 pounds).
(iv) Medium-duty passenger vehicles generally consist of heavier passenger-type vehicles, such as vans and sport utility vehicles having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 3 856 kg (8 500 pounds) and less than 4 536 kg (10 000 pounds.

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