This page has been archived on the Web
Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.
Part II: Canada's Draft National Action Plan on Unintentionally Produced Persistent Organic Pollutants
Under Article 5 of the Stockholm Convention, Parties are required to take certain measures, as summarized in Figure 2-1 below, to reduce total releases of by-product emissions of Annex C chemicals from anthropogenic sources "with the goal of their continuing minimization and, where feasible, ultimate elimination".
Figure 2-1: Schematic Summarizing Obligations of Article 5 of the Stockholm Convention on POPs
Under Article 5 (a), the Convention provides further guidance on the content of an action plan:
- An evaluation of current and projected releases, including the development and maintenance of source inventories and release estimates, taking into consideration the source categories identified in Annex C;
- An evaluation of the efficacy of the laws and policies of the Party relating to the management of such releases;
- Strategies to meet the obligations of this paragraph [measures to reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional production], taking into consideration the evaluations in (i) and (ii);
- Steps to promote education and training with regard to, and awareness of, those strategies;
- A review every five years of the strategies and of their success in meeting the obligations of this paragraph [measures to reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional production]; such reviews shall be included in reports submitted pursuant to Article 15; and
- A schedule for implementation of the action plan, including for the strategies and measures identified therein.
Annex C of the Stockholm Convention lists 17 sectors or categories that are identified as sources of the four unintentionally produced POPs. These have been listed below for reference.
Part II - Source Categories:
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls are unintentionally formed and released from thermal processes involving organic matter and chlorine as a result of incomplete combustion or chemical reactions. The following industrial source categories have the potential for comparatively high formation and release of these chemicals to the environment:
- Waste incinerators, including co-incinerators of municipal, hazardous or medical waste or of sewage sludge;
- Cement kilns firing hazardous waste;
- Production of pulp using elemental chlorine or chemicals generating elemental chlorine for bleaching;
- The following thermal processes in the metallurgical industry:
- (i) Secondary copper production;
- (ii) Sinter plants in the iron and steel industry;
- (iii) Secondary aluminium production;
- (iv) Secondary zinc production.
Part III - Source categories:
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls may also be unintentionally formed and released from the following source categories, including:
- (a) Open burning of waste, including burning of landfill sites;
- Thermal processes in the metallurgical industry not mentioned in Part II;
- Residential combustion sources;
- Fossil fuel-fired utility and industrial boilers;
- Firing installations for wood and other biomass fuels;
- Specific chemical production processes releasing unintentionally formed persistent organic pollutants, especially production of chlorophenols and chloranil;
- Motor vehicles, particularly those burning leaded gasoline;
- Destruction of animal carcasses;
- Textile and leather dyeing (with chloranil) and finishing (with alkaline extraction);
- Shredder plants for the treatment of end of life vehicles;
- Smouldering of copper cables;
- Waste oil refineries.
- Date modified: