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Emission Estimation Calculators - Booklet 1

Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

The operation of hot mix asphalt (HMA) plants can result in releases of substances from Part 1, 4 and 5.

Note: Part 2 substances (PAHs) are also released from asphalt plants but these releases are not required to be reported as they are considered to be intentional releases.

Download spreadsheet calculator: Hot Mix Asphalt Plants [xls 180.5kb] (March 2011)

Suggested estimation methodology: Emission Factor

The general equation for emissions estimation is:

E = A x EF

where:

  • E = emissions
  • A = activity rate
  • EF = emission factor

Part 1 Substance Releases

Process: Batch Mix Plants with Fabric Filter

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch Mix Plants with Fabric Filter
Substance NameChemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)Footnote1PartEmission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Acetaldehyde75-07-01A1.600E-04kilograms (kg)/tonne
Benzene71-43-21A1.400E-04kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene100-41-41A1.100E-03kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-01A3.700E-04kg/tonne
Isobutyraldehyde78-84-21A1.500E-05kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-31A5.000E-04kg/tonne
Anthracene120-12-71A1.050E-07kg/tonne
Naphthalene91-20-31A1.800E-05kg/tonne
Crotonaldehyde4170-30-31A1.450E-05kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-71A1.350E-03kg/tonne
ChromiumFootnote*1A2.850E-07kg/tonne
CopperFootnote*1A1.400E-06kg/tonne
ManganeseFootnote*1A3.450E-06kg/tonne
NickelFootnote*1A1.500E-06kg/tonne
p-Quinone106-51-41A1.350E-04kg/tonne
SeleniumFootnote*1A2.450E-07kg/tonne
ZincFootnote*1A3.400E-06kg/tonne
ArsenicFootnote*1B2.300E-07kg/tonne
CadmiumFootnote*1B3.050E-07kg/tonne
Hexavalent chromiumFootnote*1B2.400E-08kg/tonne
Lead (NG, #2 oil)Footnote*1B4.450E-07kg/tonne
MercuryFootnote*1B2.050E-07kg/tonne
Lead (#6 oil)Footnote*1B5.000E-06kg/tonne

Process: Drum Mix Plants with Natural gas-fired dryer with fabric filter

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix Plants with Natural gas-fired dryer with fabric filter
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1PartEmission FactorFootnote2EF Units
AntimonyFootnote*1A9.000E-08kg/tonne
Benzene71-43-21A1.950E-04kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene100-41-41A1.200E-04kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-01A1.550E-03kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-31A4.600E-04kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-31A7.500E-05kg/tonne
Anthracene120-12-71A1.100E-07kg/tonne
Naphthalene91-20-31A4.500E-05kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-71A1.000E-04kg/tonne
ChromiumFootnote*1A2.750E-06kg/tonne
CobaltFootnote*1A1.300E-08kg/tonne
CopperFootnote*1A1.550E-06kg/tonne
ManganeseFootnote*1A3.850E-06kg/tonne
NickelFootnote*1A3.150E-05kg/tonne
SilverFootnote*1A2.400E-07kg/tonne
PhosphorusFootnote*1A1.400E-05kg/tonne
SeleniumFootnote*1A1.750E-07kg/tonne
ZincFootnote*1A3.050E-05kg/tonne
Ethylene74-85-11A3.500E-03kg/tonne
ArsenicFootnote*1B2.800E-07kg/tonne
CadmiumFootnote*1B2.050E-07kg/tonne
Hexavalent chromiumFootnote*1B2.250E-07kg/tonne
LeadFootnote*1B3.100E-07kg/tonne
MercuryFootnote*1B1.200E-07kg/tonne

Process: Drum Mix Plants with No. 2 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - fabric filter

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix Plants with No. 2 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - fabric filter
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1PartEmission FactorFootnote2EF Units
AntimonyFootnote*1A9.000E-08kg/tonne
Benzene71-43-21A1.950E-04kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene100-41-41A1.200E-04kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-01A1.550E-03kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-31A4.600E-04kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-31A1.450E-03kg/tonne
Anthracene120-12-71A1.550E-06kg/tonne
Naphthalene91-20-31A3.250E-04kg/tonne
Ethylene74-85-11A3.500E-03kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-71A1.000E-04kg/tonne
ChromiumFootnote*1A2.750E-06kg/tonne
CobaltFootnote*1A1.300E-08kg/tonne
CopperFootnote*1A1.550E-06kg/tonne
ManganeseFootnote*1A3.850E-06kg/tonne
NickelFootnote*1A3.150E-05kg/tonne
PhosphorusFootnote*1A1.400E-05kg/tonne
SeleniumFootnote*1A1.750E-07kg/tonne
ZincFootnote*1A3.050E-05kg/tonne
SilverFootnote*1A2.400E-07kg/tonne
ArsenicFootnote*1B2.800E-07kg/tonne
CadmiumFootnote*1B2.050E-07kg/tonne
Hexavalent chromiumFootnote*1B2.250E-07kg/tonne
LeadFootnote*1B7.500E-06kg/tonne
MercuryFootnote*1B1.300E-07kg/tonne

Process: Drum mix Plants w/Waste/No. 6 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - fabric filter

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:

A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum mix Plants w/Waste/No. 6 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - fabric filter
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1PartEmission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Acetaldehyde75-07-01A6.500E-04kg/tonne
Acrolein107-02-81A1.300E-05kg/tonne
AntimonyFootnote*1A9.000E-08kg/tonne
Benzene71-43-21A1.950E-04kg/tonne
Butyraldehyde123-72-81A8.000E-05kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene100-41-41A1.200E-04kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-01A1.550E-03kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-31A4.600E-04kg/tonne
Hydrochloric acid7647-01-01A1.050E-04kg/tonne
Methyl Ethyl Ketone78-93-31A1.000E-05kg/tonne
Propionaldehyde123-38-61A6.500E-05kg/tonne
p-Quinone106-51-41A8.000E-05kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-31A1.450E-03kg/tonne
Anthracene120-12-71A1.550E-06kg/tonne
Naphthalene91-20-31A3.250E-04kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-71A1.000E-04kg/tonne
ChromiumFootnote*1A2.750E-06kg/tonne
CobaltFootnote*1A1.300E-08kg/tonne
CopperFootnote*1A1.550E-06kg/tonne
ManganeseFootnote*1A3.850E-06kg/tonne
NickelFootnote*1A3.150E-05kg/tonne
PhosphorusFootnote*1A1.400E-05kg/tonne
SeleniumFootnote*1A1.750E-07kg/tonne
ZincFootnote*1A3.050E-05kg/tonne
Ethylene74-85-11A3.500E-03kg/tonne
Crotonaldehyde4170-30-31A4.300E-05kg/tonne
SilverFootnote*1A2.400E-07kg/tonne
ArsenicFootnote*1B2.800E-07kg/tonne
CadmiumFootnote*1B2.050E-07kg/tonne
Hexavalent chromiumFootnote*1B2.250E-07kg/tonne
LeadFootnote*1B7.500E-06kg/tonne
MercuryFootnote*1B1.300E-07kg/tonne

Process: Asphalt Heater – Natural Gas Boilers <10 Million British Thermal Units Per Hour (MMBTU/hr)

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:
A = Amount of natural gas fuel used in the asphalt cement storage heater (cubic meters (m3)/year)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heater – Natural Gas Boilers <10 MMBTU/hr
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1PartEmission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Benzene71-43-21A3.364E-02kg/10^6m^3
ChromiumFootnote*1A2.243E-02kg/10^6m^3
CobaltFootnote*1A1.346E-03kg/10^6m^3
CopperFootnote*1A1.362E-02kg/10^6m^3
Formaldehyde50-00-01A1.201E+00kg/10^6m^3
n-Hexane110-54-31A2.883E+01kg/10^6m^3
ManganeseFootnote*1A6.087E-03kg/10^6m^3
Naphthalene91-20-31A9.771E-03kg/10^6m^3
NickelFootnote*1A3.364E-02kg/10^6m^3
Toluene108-88-31A5.446E-02kg/10^6m^3
ZincFootnote*1A4.645E-01kg/10^6m^3
ArsenicFootnote*1B0.003kg/10^6m^3
CadmiumFootnote*1B0.018kg/10^6m^3
LeadFootnote*1B0.008kg/10^6m^3
MercuryFootnote*1B0.004kg/10^6m^3

Process: Asphalt Heater – Waste Oil

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Amount of Waste Oil used in the asphalt cement storage heater (litres/year)
%Pb = Lead (Pb) content in waste/No. 6 fuel oil (US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) default = 0% Pb)
%Cl = Chlorine (Cl) content in fuel (USEPA default = 0% Cl)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heaters Burning Waste Oil
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1PartEmission FactorFootnote2EF Units
ChromiumFootnote*1A2.397E-03kg/1000 litres (L)
CobaltFootnote*1A2.516E-05kg/1000L
ManganeseFootnote*1A8.148E-03kg/1000L
NickelFootnote*1A1.318E-03kg/1000L
Hydrochloric Acid7647-01-01A7.91 x %Clkg/1000L
ArsenicFootnote*1B1.318E-02kg/1000L
CadmiumFootnote*1B1.114E-03kg/1000L
LeadFootnote*1B6.59 x %Pbkg/1000L

Process: Load-Out and Yard Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using this formula (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon' and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFTOC (Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon)  = 0.00172(-V) e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)

Emission Factors for Load-Out and Yard Emissions
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Weight %Footnote**Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Ethylene74-85-10.71= EFTOC x Wt% (Percentage by mass)/100 kg/tonne
Benzene71-43-20.052= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Bromomethane74-83-90.0096= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Carbon Disulfide75-15-00.013= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Chloroethane75-00-30.00021= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Chloromethane74-87-30.015= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Cumene92-82-80.11= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Ethylbenzenene100-41-40.28= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-00.088= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-30.15= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Styrene100-42-50.0073= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Tetrachloroethylene127-18-40.0077= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-30.21= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-70.49= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Anthracene120-12-070.07= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Naphthalene91-20-31.25= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Phenol108-95-21.18= EFTOC  x Wt%/100 kg/tonne

Process: Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using this formula (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon' and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFTOC  = 0.5* 0.0504(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)]   (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)

Emission Factors for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Weight %Footnote**Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Ethylene74-85-11.1=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Benzene71-43-20.032=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Bromomethane74-83-90.0049=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Carbon Disulfide75-15-00.016=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Chloroethane75-00-30.004=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Chloromethane74-87-30.023=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene100-41-40.038=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-00.69=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-30.1=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Styrene100-42-50.0054=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-30.062=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-70.257=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Anthracene120-12-70.13=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne
Naphthalene91-20-31.82=EFTOC*Wt%/100 kg/tonne

Part 4 Substance Releases

Process: Batch mix – Natural gas fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch mix – Natural gas fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-02.000E-01kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)7446-09-52.300E-03kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), expressed as nitrogen dioxide (NO2)11104-93-11.250E-02kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*4.100E-03kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM)Footnote*1.600E+01kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10)Footnote*2.250E+00kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)Footnote*1.350E-01kg/tonne

Process: Batch mix – No. 2 fuel oil-fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch mix – No. 2 fuel oil-fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-02.000E-01kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)7446-09-54.400E-02kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx)11104-93-16.000E-02kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*4.100E-03kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM)Footnote*1.600E+01kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10)Footnote*2.250E+00kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)Footnote*1.350E-01kg/tonne

 

Process: Batch Mix – Waste/drain/No. 6 fuel oil-fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:

A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch Mix – Waste/drain/No. 6 fuel oil-fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-02.000E-01kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)7446-09-54.400E-02kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx)11104-93-16.000E-02kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*1.800E-02kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM)Footnote*1.600E+01kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10)Footnote*2.250E+00kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)Footnote*1.350E-01kg/tonne

Process: Drum mix – Natural gas-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum mix – Natural gas-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-06.500E-02kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)7446-09-51.700E-03kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx)11104-93-11.300E-02kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*1.600E-02kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM)Footnote*1.400E+01kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10)Footnote*3.200E+00kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)Footnote*7.500E-01kg/tonne

Process: Drum mix – No. 2 oil-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum mix – No. 2 oil-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-06.500E-02kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)7446-09-55.500E-03kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx)11104-93-12.750E-02kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*1.600E-02kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM)Footnote*1.400E+01kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10)Footnote*3.200E+00kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)Footnote*7.500E-01kg/tonne

Process: Drum mix – Waste/drain/No.6 oil-fired  rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum mix – Waste/drain/No.6 oil-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-06.500E-02kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)7446-09-52.900E-02kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx)11104-93-12.750E-02kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*1.600E-02kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM)Footnote*1.400E+01kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10)Footnote*3.200E+00kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)Footnote*7.500E-01kg/tonne

Process: Asphalt Heater – Natural Gas

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Amount of natural gas fuel used in the asphalt cement storage heater (m3/year)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heaters Burning Natural Gas
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-01345.551kg/10^6m^3
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)7446-09-59.611kg/10^6m^3
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx)11104-93-11601.846kg/10^6m^3
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*88.102kg/10^6m^3
Total Particulate Matter (TPM)Footnote*30.435kg/10^6m^3
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10)Footnote*30.435kg/10^6m^3
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)Footnote*30.435kg/10^6m^3

Process: Asphalt Heater – Waste Oil

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Amount of Waste Oil used in the asphalt cement storage heater (litres/year)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heaters Burning Waste Oil
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-05.991E-01kg/1000L
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)7446-09-54.509E+00kg/1000L
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx)11104-93-12.277E+00kg/1000L
Total Particulate Matter (TPM)Footnote*2.784E+00kg/1000L
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10)Footnote*2.218E+00kg/1000L
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5)Footnote*1.253E+00kg/1000L

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Load-Out and Yard Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using these formulae (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon', EFCO represets 'Emission Factor for Carbon Monoxide'and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFCO  = 0.5* 0.00558(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

EFTOC  = 0.00172(-V) e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)]   (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Load-Out and Yard Emissions
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Weight %Footnote**Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-0NA= EFCO kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*94=EFTOC x Wt%VOC/100   kg/tonne

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using these formulae (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon', EFCO represets 'Emission Factor for Carbon Monoxide'and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFCO  = 0.5* 0.00488(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43))] (kg/tonne)

EFTOC  = 0.5* 0.0504(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Weight %Footnote**Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO)630-08-0NA= EFCO kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)Footnote*100=EFTOC * Wt%VOC/100   kg/tonne

Part 5 Substance Releases

Process: Batch Mix Plants

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch Mix Plants
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Benzene71-43-21.400E-04kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-03.700E-04kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-35.000E-04kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-71.350E-03kg/tonne

Process: Drum Mix – Natural gas-fired dryer with fabric filter

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix – Natural gas-fired dryer with fabric filter
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Benzene71-43-21.950E-04kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-01.550E-03kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-37.500E-05kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-71.000E-04kg/tonne
Ethylene74-85-13.500E-03kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-34.600E-04kg/tonne

Process: Drum Mix – No. 2 Fuel Oil-fired dryer – Uncontrolled

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix – No. 2 Fuel Oil-fired dryer – Uncontrolled
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Benzene71-43-21.950E-04kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-01.550E-03kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-31.450E-03kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-71.000E-04kg/tonne
Ethylene74-85-13.500E-03kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-34.600E-04kg/tonne

Process: Drum Mix – Waste/No.6 Fuel Oil-fired dryer fabric filter

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix – Waste/No.6 Fuel Oil-fired dryer fabric filter
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Benzene71-43-21.950E-04kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-01.550E-03kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-31.450E-03kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-71.000E-04kg/tonne
Ethylene74-85-13.500E-03kg/tonne

Process: Asphalt Heater: Natural Gas Boilers <10 MMBTU/hr

Input:
A = Amount of natural gas fuel used in the asphalt cement storage heater (m3/year)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heater: Natural Gas Boilers <10 MMBTU/hr
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Benzene71-43-23.364E-02kg/10^6m^3
Formaldehyde50-00-01.201E+00kg/10^6m^3
Toluene108-88-35.446E-02kg/10^6m^3

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Load-Out and Yard Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using this formula (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon', and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFTOC  = 0.5*0.00172(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Load-Out and Yard Emissions
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Weight %Footnote**Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Ethylene74-85-10.71=EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Benzene71-43-20.052=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-00.088=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-30.15=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
Styrene100-42-50.0073=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-30.21=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-70.49=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using this formula (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon', and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EF TOC  = 0.5*0.0504(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions
Substance NameCAS RNFootnote1Weight %Footnote**Emission FactorFootnote2EF Units
Ethylene74-85-11.1=EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Benzene71-43-20.032=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
Formaldehyde50-00-00.69=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
n-Hexane110-54-30.1=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
Styrene100-42-50.0054=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
Toluene108-88-30.062=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne
Xylene1330-20-70.257=EFTOC * Wt% /100  kg/tonne

Process: Aggregate Pile

See separate guidance for aggregate handling

Process: Asphalt Storage Tanks

See U.S. EPA TANKS document

Note on Emissions Factors

Unless otherwise noted, the emission factors presented here are based on uncontrolled emissions. If you are using an emission control device you will have to adjust the emissions calculated by this spreadsheet according to the following formula:

Controlled Emissions = Uncontrolled emission x ((100 - control efficiency)/100)

Emission Factor Sources:
Part 1,2,3,4,5 Substances emissions factors from AP 42, Volume I, Fifth Edition, Chapter 11.1 - Hot Mix Asphalt Plants
Part 1,2,3,4,5 Substances emission factors from AP-42, Volume 1, Fifth Edition, Chapter 1.11 - Waste Oil Combustion
Part 1,2,3,4,5 Substances emission factors from AP-42, Volume 1, Fifth Edition, Chapter 1.4 - Natural Gas Combustion
Vermont Used Oil Analysis and Waste Oil Furnace Emission Study, USEPA 1994.

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