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Microbial Source Tracking in Aquatic Ecosystems: The State of the Science and an Assessment of Needs

Key References

Bernhard, A.E. and K.G. Field. 2000a. Identification of nonpoint sources of fecal pollution in coastal waters by using host-specific 16S ribosomal DNA genetic markers from fecal anaerobes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 1587-1594.

Bernhard, A.E. and K.G. Field. 2000b. PCR assay to discriminate human and ruminant feces on the basis of host differences in Bacteroides-Prevotella genes encoding 16S rRNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 4571-4574.

Carson, C.A., B.L. Shear, M.R. Ellersieck and A. Asfaw. 2001. Identification of fecal Escherichia coli from humans and animals by ribotyping. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 1503-1507.

Dombek, P.E., L.K. Johnson, S.T. Zimmerley and M.J. Sadowsky. 2000. Use of repetitive DNA sequences and the PCR to differentiate Escherichia coli isolates from human and animal sources. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2572-2577.

Elhmmali, M., D. Robers and R. Evershed. 2002. Combined analysis of bile acids and sterols/stanols from riverine particulates to assess sewage discharges and other fecal sources. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34: 39-46.

Field, K.G. 2004. Faecal source identification, chapter 22, p. 349-366. In J.A. Cotruvo, A. Dufour, G. Rees, J. Bartram, R. Carr, D.O. Cliver, G.F. Craun, R. Fayer and V.P.J. Gannon (ed.), Waterborne zoonoses: identification, causes and control. World Health Organization, IWA Publishing, London, U.K.

Fong, T.T., D.W. Griffin and E.K. Lipp. 2005. Molecular assays for targeting human and bovine enteric viruses in coastal waters and their application for library-independent source tracking. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 2070-2078.

Glassmeyer, S.T., E.T. Furlong, D.W. Kolpin, J.D. Cahill, S.D. Zaugg, S.L. Werner, M.T. Meyer and D.D. Kryak. 2005. Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(14): 5157-5169.

Goss, M. and K.E. Dunfield. 2004. Tracking sources of microbial impairment to water quality in rural Ontario. Report on the Workshop held at the University of Guelph, Arboretum Centre, 5-6 April, 2004.

Griffith , J.F., S.B. Weisburg and C.D. McGee. 2003. Evaluation of microbial source tracking methods using mixed fecal sources in aqueous test samples. J. Water Health 1: 141-151.

Guan, S ., R. Xu , S. Chen , J. Odumeru and C. Gyles . 2002. Development of a procedure for discriminating among Escherichia coli isolates from animal and human sources. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 2690-2698.

Hagedorn, C., J.B. Crozier, K.A. Mentz, A.M. Booth, A.K. Graves, N.J. Nelson and R.B. Reneau. 2003. Carbon source utilization profiles as a method to identify sources of faecal pollution in water. J. Appl. Microbiol. 94: 792-799.

Hagedorn, C.S., S.L. Robinson, J.R. Filtz, S.M. Grubbs, T.A. Angier and R.B. Reneau. 1999. Using antibiotic resistance patterns in the fecal streptococci to determine sources of fecal pollution in a rural Virginia watershed. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 5522-5531.

Harwood, V.J., J. Whitlock and V. Withington. 2000. Classification of antibiotic resistance patterns of indicator bacteria by discriminant analysis: use in predicting the source of fecal contamination in subtropical waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 3698-3704.

Health Canada and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2004. A pilot project to study the impact of agriculture on the prevalence, levels and sources of microbiological (fecal) contamination at drinking water supply intake points and recreational beaches at selected sites across Canada. Microbial Source Tracking Workshop: Summary of Proceedings. Water Quality and Health Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Safe Environments Programme, Health Canada and Potato Research Centre, Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. June 19-20 2003, Ottawa, Ontario. 30 p.

Jiang, J., K.A. Alderisio and L. Xiao. 2005. Distribution of Cryptosporidium genotypes in storm event water samples from three watersheds in New York. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 4446-4454.

Johnson, L.K., M.B. Brown, E.A. Carruthers, J.A. Ferguson, P.E. Dombek and M.J. Sadowsky. 2004. Sample size, library composition, and genotypic diversity among natural populations of Escherichia coli from different animals influence accuracy of determining sources of fecal pollution. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 4478-4485.

Khatib, L.A., Y.L. Tsai and B.H. Olson. 2002. A biomarker for the identification of cattle fecal pollution in water using the LTIIa toxin gene from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 59: 97-104.

Khatib, L.A., Y.L. Tsai and B.H. Olson. 2003. A biomarker for the identification of swine fecal pollution in water, using the STII toxin gene from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 63: 231-238.

Kuntz, R.L., P.G. Hartel, D.G. Godfrey, J.L. McDonald, K.W. Gates and W.I. Segars. 2003. Targeted sampling protocol with Enterococcus faecalis for bacterial source tracking. J. Environ. Qual. 32: 2311-2318.

Leung, K.T., R. Mackereth, Y.-C. Tien and E. Topp. 2004. A comparison of AFLP and ERIC-PCR analyses for discriminating Escherichia coli from cattle, pig and human sources. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 47: 111-119.

Martellini, A., P. Payment and R. Villemur. 2005. Use of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA to differentiate human, bovine, porcine and ovine sources in fecally contaminated surface water. Water Res. 39: 541-548.

OMOE. 2005. Sources and mechanisms of delivery of E. coli (bacteria) pollution to the Lake Huron shoreline of Huron County . Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 265 p.

Payan, A., J. Ebdon, H. Taylor, C. Gantzer, J. Ottoson, G.T. Papageorgiou, A.R. Blanch, F. Lucena, J. Jofre and M. Muniesa. 2005. Method for isolation of Bacteroides bacteriophage host strains suitable for tracking sources of fecal pollution in water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 5659-5662.

Roser, D.J., N.J. Ashbolt, R. Leeming, R. Kagi and T.D. Waite. 2003. Fingerprinting using sterols and particle size analyses and the management of faecal pollution and turbidity, p. 355-362, Vol. 2. In M.J. Boyd, J.E. Ball, M.K. Babister and J. Green (ed.), 28th International Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium. Institution of Engineers, Australia .

Scott, T.M., T.M. Jenkins, J. Lukasik and J.B. Rose. 2005. Potential use of a host associated molecular marker in Enterococcus faecium as an index of human fecal pollution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39: 283-287.

Scott, T.M., J.B. Rose, T.M. Jenkins, S.R. Farrah and J. Lukasik. 2002. Microbial source tracking: current methodology and future directions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 5796-5803.

Simpson, J.M., J.W. Santo Domingo and D.J. Reasoner. 2002. Microbial source tracking: state of the science. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36: 5279-5288.

Stoeckel, D.M., M.V. Mathes, K.E. Hyer, C. Hagedorn, H. Kator, J. Lukasik, T.L. O'Brien, T.W. Fenger, M. Samadpour, K.M. Strickler and B.A. Wiggins. 2004. Comparison of seven protocols to identify fecal contamination sources using Escherichia coli. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 6109-6117.

Sullivan, D. 2004. Microbial source tracking (MST): towards effective identification of fecal pollution sources. MST Applications Workshop Final Report. Clean Annapolis River Project. April 14-15, 2004, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. Cat. No. En4-45/2004E. 44 p.

U.S. EPA. 2005. Microbial source tracking guide. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, EPA/600-R-05-064. 150 p.

Wiggins, B.A. 1996. Discriminant analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal streptococci, a method to differentiate human and animal sources of fecal pollution in natural waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 3997-4002.