This page has been archived on the Web
Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.
National Assessment of Pulp and Paper Environmental Effects Monitoring Data: Findings from Cycles 1 through 3
- Publishing Information
- 1.0 Executive Summary
- 2.0 Introduction
- 3.0 Overview of Studies Conducted in Cycle 3
- 4.0 General Methods - Data Preparation and Analysis
- 4.1 General Methods - Procedure for Determining National Response
- 5.0 Fish Survey
- 5.1 Data Processing and Study Designs
- 5.2 Summary of Effect Sizes
- 5.3 Response Patterns and Meta-analyses
- 6.0 Fisheries Resources and Usability
- 7.0 Benthic Invertebrate Community Survey
- 7.1 Data Processing and Study Designs
- 7.2 Summary of Effect Sizes
- 7.3 Response Patterns and Meta-analyses
- 8.0 Sublethal Toxicity Testing - Introduction
- 8.1 Sublethal Toxicity Testing - Monitoring Changes in Effluent Quality Among Cycles
- 8.2 Sublethal Toxicity Testing - Summary and Future Considerations
- 9.0 Summary and Conclusions
- Acronyms / Abbreviations
Bailey, R.C., R.H. Norris, and T.B. Reynoldson. 2001. Taxonomic resolution of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in bioassessments. J.N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 20: 280-286.
Bowman, J.F. and R.C. Bailey. 1997. Does taxonomic resolution affect the multivariate description of the structure of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate communities? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 1802-1807.
Chambers, P.A., A.R. Dale, G.J. Scrimgeour, and M.L. Bothwell. 2000b. Nutrient enrichment of northern rivers in response to pulp mill and municipal discharges. J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Stress Recov. 8: 53-66.
Courtenay, S.C., K. Munkittrick, H.M.C. Dupuis, R. Parker, and J. Boyd. 2002. Quantifying impacts of pulp mill effluent on fish in Canadian marine and estuarine environments: problems and progress. Water Qual. Res. J. Can. 37(1): 77-99
Culp, J.M., R.B. Lowell and K.J. Cash. 2000. Integrating mesocosm experiments with field and laboratory studies to generate weight-of-evidence risk assessments for large rivers. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19: 1167–1173.
Culp, J.M., M.E. Wiseman, R.C. Bailey, N.E. Glozier, R.B. Lowell, T.B. Reynoldson, L. Trudel, and G.D. Watson. 2003. New requirements for benthic community assessments at Canadian metal mines are progressive and robust: reply to Orr et al. SETAC Globe 4: 31 32.
Damstra, T., S. Barlow, A. Bergman, R. Kavlock and G. Van Der Kraak (eds.). 2002. Global Assessment of the State-of-the-Science of Endocrine Disruptors. WHO/PCS/EDC/0.2.2; World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety.
Doherty, C.A., R.A. Currey and K.R. Munkittrick. 2004. Adult white sucker show limited mobility near point source discharges in a large Canadian river. In D.L. Borton, T.J. Hall, R.P. Fisher and J.F. Thomas (eds.), Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Environmental Fate and Effects. DEStech Publications, Lancaster, PA. pp. 123-132.
Environment Canada. 1997. Fish population survey expert working group final report: Recommendations from Cycle 1 review. National EEM Office, Science Policy and Environmental Quality Branch, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Canada (EEM/1997/6)
Environment Canada. 2004a. Revised Technical Guidance for Conducting Aquatic Environmental Effects Monitoring for pulp and paper mills. Environment Canada, National EEM Office, National Water Research Institute, Gatineau, QC., Canada
Environment Canada. 2004b. Understanding the Pulp and Paper Environmental Effects Monitoring Program. Environment Canada, National EEM Office, National Water Research Institute, Gatineau, QC., Canada.
Glozier, N.E., J.M. Culp, T.B. Reynoldson, R.C. Bailey, R.B. Lowell and L. Trudel. 2002. Assessing metal mine effects using benthic invertebrates for Canada’s Environmental Effects Program. Water Qual. Res. J. Can. 37: 251–278.
Gurevitch, J. and L.V. Hedges. 2001. Meta-analysis. Combining the results of independent experiments. Pages 347-369 in Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments, S.M. Scheiner and J. Gurevitch (eds.), Oxford University Press, New York.
Hedges, L.V. and I. Olkin. 1985. Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.
Kilgour, B.W., K.M. Somers and D.E. Matthews. 1998. Using the normal range as a criterion for ecological significance in environmental monitoring and assessment. Ecoscience 5: 542-550.
Lenat, D.R. and V.H. Resh. 2001. Taxonomy and stream ecology – The benefits of genus- and species- level identifications. J.N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 20: 287-298.
Lowell, R.B. 1997. Discussion paper on critical effect size guidelines for EEM using benthic invertebrate communities. National EEM Office, Science Policy and Environmental Quality Branch, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (EEM/1997/8).
Lowell, R.B. and J.M. Culp. 2002. Implications of sampling frequency for detecting temporal patterns during environmental effects monitoring. Water Qual. Res. J. Can. 37: 119–132.
Lowell, R.B., J.M. Culp, and M.G. Dubé. 2000. A weight-of-evidence approach for northern river risk assessment: integrating the effects of multiple stressors. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19: 1182–1190.
Lowell, R.B., J.M. Culp and F.J. Wrona. 1995. Stimulation of increased short-term growth and development of mayflies by pulp mill effluent. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14: 1529–1541.
Lowell, R.B., K. Hedley and E. Porter. 2002. Data interpretation issues for Canada’s Environmental Effects Monitoring Program. Water Qual. Res. J. Can. 37: 101–117.
Lowell, R.B., K.R. Munkittrick, J.M. Culp, M.E. McMaster, and L.C. Grapentine. 2004. National response patterns of fish and invertebrates exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents: metabolic disruption in combination with eutrophication and other effects. Pages 147-155 in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Environmental Fate and Effects , D.L. Borton, T.J. Hall, R.P. Fisher, J.F. Thomas, eds., DEStech Publications, Lancaster, PA. Lowell, R.B., S.C. Ribey, I.K. Ellis, E.L. Porter, J.M. Culp, L.C. Grapentine, M.E. McMaster, K.R. Munkittrick and R.P. Scroggins. 2003. National Assessment of the Pulp and Paper Environmental Effects Monitoring Data. National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Gatineau, QC.. NWRI Contribution 03-521.
Munkittrick, K.R., S.A. McGeachy, M.E. McMaster, and S.C. Courtenay. 2002. Review of cycle 2 freshwater fish studies from the pulp and paper environmental effects monitoring program. Water Qual. Res. J. Can. 37(1):49-77.
Munkittrick, K. R., M.E. McMaster, G. Van Der Kraak, C. Portt, W.N. Gibbons, A. Farwell, and M. Gray. 2000. Development of methods for effects-based cumulative effects assessment using fish populations: Moose River Project. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Press, Pensacola, Florida.
Munkittrick, K. R., C. Portt, G.J. Van Der Kraak, I. Smith and D. Rokosh. 1991. Impact of bleached kraft mill effluent on population characteristics, liver MFO activity and serum steroid levels of a Lake Superior white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) population. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 1371-1380.
Munkittrick, K.R., G.J. Van Der Kraak, M.E. McMaster, C.B. Portt, M.R. van den Heuvel, and M.R. Servos. 1994. Survey of receiving water environmental impacts associated with discharges from pulp mills. 2. Gonad size, liver size, hepatic EROD activity and plasma sex steroid levels in white sucker. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13: 1089 1101
Rosenberg, M.S., D.C. Adams, and J. Gurevitch. 2000. MetaWin: Statistical software for meta-analysis. Version 2.0. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Rosenthal, R. 1991. Meta-analytic Procedures for Social Research (revised ed.). Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
Van Der Kraak, G.J., K.R. Munkittrick, M.E. McMaster, C.B. Portt and J.P. Chang. 1992. Exposure to bleached kraft pulp mull effluent disrupts the pituitary-gonadal axis of white sucker at multiple sites. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 115: 224-233.
- Date modified: