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Industrial Processes

This section provides commonly used emission factors for various industrial processes from Canada's National Inventory Report.


Mineral Products

Table 1: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission Factors for Mineral Products1
CategoryMineral ProductEmission Factor
(g/kg mineral product)
Cement ProductionClinker507.1
Lime ProductionHigh-Calcium Lime751
Dolomitic Lime889
Limestone and Dolomite UseLimestone418
Dolomite468
Soda Ash UseSoda Ash415
Magnesite UseMagnesite506

g/kg = gram per kilogram

Chemical Industry

Table 2: Emission Factors for Ammonia and Adipic Acid Production1
CategoryProcess DescriptionEmission Factor
(t/t chemical product)
Carbon Dioxide
(CO2)
Nitrous Oxide
(N2O)
Ammonia ProductionNatural gas reforming which produces hydrogen needed for ammonia manufacturing1.56NA
Adipic Acid ProductionOxidation reaction of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol mixture without N2O abatementNA0.3

t/t = tonne per tonne
NA = not applicable

Table 3: N2O Emission Factors for Nitric Acid Production1
CategoryProcess DescriptionN2O Emission Factor
(kg/t)
Nitric Acid ProductionDual-pressure plants with extended absorption (Type 1)9.4
Dual-pressure plants with extended absorption (Type 2)12
High-pressure plants with non-selective catalytic reduction0.66
High-pressure plants with selective catalytic reduction8.5

 

Table 4: CH4 Emission Factors for Petrochemical Production1

Petrochemical Product

Emission Factor
Unit
Silicon Carbide
11.6
kg CH4 / t product
Calcium Carbide
4.8
kg CH4 / t product
Carbon Black
1.29
kg CH4 / t product
Ethylene
0.013
kg CH4 / t product
0.0055
kg N2O / t product
Ethylene Dichloride
0.4
kg CH4 / t product
Styrene
4.0
kg CH4 / t product
Methanol
0.031
kg CH4 / t product


Metal Production

Table 5: Tier 1 Emission Factors for Aluminium Production1
Cell Technology TypeEmission Factor
(kg/t product)
Carbon Dioxide
(CO2
)
Carbon Tetrafluoride
(CF4)
Carbon Hexafluoride
(C2F6)
Side-worked pre-baked16001.60.4
Centre-worked pre-baked16000.40.04
Horizontal stud Söderberg17000.40.03
Vertical stud Söderberg17000.80.04


Table 6: Parameters for Iron and Steel Industry
1
ParameterEmission FactorUnit
Iron ore reduction with coke3.2-3.3t CO2/t coke used
Electrode consumption in electric arc furnaces4.53kg CO2/t steel
Electrode consumption in basic oxide furnaces0.23kg CO2/t steel

t CO2/t = tonne of carbon dioxide per tonne
kg CO2/t = kilogram of carbon dioxide per tonne

Consumption of Halocarbons

Table 7: Consumption of Halocarbons1
ApplicationHydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Emission Rate (%)Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Emissions Rate (%)
Assembly
Residential Refrigeration Equipment2% (of charge)3.5 % (of charge)
Commercial Refrigeration Equipment3.5% (of charge)3.5 % (of charge)
Stationary AC Equipment3.5% (of charge)3.5% (of charge)
Mobile AC Equipment4.5% (of charge)4.5% (of charge)
Operation
Residential Refrigeration Equipment1% (of stock in existing systems)17% (of stock in existing systems)
Commercial Refrigeration Equipment17% (of stock in existing systems)17% (of stock in existing systems)
Stationary AC Equipment17% (of stock in existing systems)17% (of stock in existing systems)
Mobile AC Equipment15% (of stock in existing systems)30% (of stock in existing systems)
Other Applications
Foam Blowing - Open Cell100% (of use)100% (of use)
Foam Blowing - Closed Cell10% of the charge released during manufacturing
4.5% of the original quantity charge released per year over the product’s lifetime
10% of the charge released during manufacturing
4.5% of the original quantity charge released per year over the product’s life
Fire Extinguishing - Portable60% (of HFCs use in new systems)NA
Fire Extinguishing - total flooding systems35% (of HFCs use in new systems)NA
Aerosol Products50% (of use) in the first year and the other 50% (of use) in the second yearNA
Solvents50% (of use) in the first year and the other 50% (of use) in the second year50% (of use) in the first year and the other 50% (of use) in the second year
Other Products - containedNA1% of the quantity sold is emitted during manufacturing
2% of the stock is emitted per year over the product’s lifetime
Other Products - emissiveNA50% (of use) in the first year and the other 50% (of use) in the second year

NA = not applicable

Other and Undifferentiated Production

Table 8: Non-Energy Use of Natural Gas Liquids and Petroleum Products1
ProductFraction of Carbon
Stored in the Product
CO2 Emission Factor
(g/L)
Natural Gas Liquids
Propane0.8303
Butane0.8349
Ethane0.8197
Petroleum Products
Petrochemical Feedstocks08500
Naphthas0.75625
Lubricating Oils and Greases0.51410
Petroleum Used for Other Products0.51450

g/L = gram per litre


1. Refer to the National Inventory Report (2011 submission) for further details on emission factors.