Risk management approach for
Liquefied Petroleum Gases stream 4 petroleum and refinery Gases

Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers (CAS RN): 68476-85-7 68476-86-8

Environment and Climate Change Canada
Health Canada

February 2017

(PDF Format - 546 KB)

Table of Contents

Summary of proposed risk management

This document outlines the proposed risk management actions for two petroleum and refinery gases in Stream 4 described under Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers (CAS RNs)Footnote 1 68476-85-7 and 68476-86-8, also commonly known as liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs). In particular, the Government of Canada is considering a regulation under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) for reducing fugitive air emissions from certain petroleum facilities. It is intended that this would be the same regulation under CEPA that is being considered for the risk management of 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases in Stream 1 of the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach (PSSA), and four industry-restricted petroleum and refinery gases in Stream 2 of the PSSA.

The risk management options outlined in this Risk Management Approach document may evolve through consideration of assessments and risk management options published for other Chemicals Management Plan substances as required to ensure effective, coordinated, and consistent risk management decision-making.

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1. Context

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) (Canada 1999) provides the authority for the Minister of Environment and Climate Change and the Minister of Health (the Ministers) to conduct screening assessments to determine if substances are harmful to human health and/or the environment as set out in section 64 of CEPAFootnote 2 and if so to manage the associated risks. Pursuant to the Act, the Ministers have conducted a screening assessment of the following liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs), which are included in Stream 4Footnote 3 of the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach under the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan:

Petroleum sector stream approach
CAS RNDomestic Substances List name
68476-85-7Petroleum gases, liquefied
68476-86-8Petroleum gases, liquefied, sweetened

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2. Issue

2.1 Final screening assessment conclusion

Health Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada have conducted a joint scientific assessment of two LPGs in Canada. A notice summarizing the scientific considerations of the final screening assessment for these substances was published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, on February 25, 2017 (Canada 2017). The final screening assessment concludes that these two LPGs: CAS RNs 68476-85-7 and 68476-86-8, do not meet the criteria under paragraphs 64(a) and (b) of CEPA as they are not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity or that constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends.

However, based on the information available, the final screening assessment concludes that these two LPGs: CAS RNs 68476-85-7 and 68476-86-8, meet the criteria under paragraph 64(c) of CEPA as they are entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health.

In the final screening assessment, it is recognized that a small portion of the general population may be exposed to 1,3-butadiene (a carcinogenic component of LPGs) in the vicinity of petroleum refineries. The potential risk stems from the release of the substances in fugitive air emissions (resulting from leaks through valves, pipe connections, seals, etc.).

In the final screening assessment for site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases (Environment Canada 2013a), it was determined that margins of exposure between high end estimates of exposure to 1,3-butadiene and estimates of cancer potency for inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene are potentially inadequate to address uncertainties related to health effects and exposure. Unintentional emissions during the production of LPGs at petroleum refineries represent a portion of the previously estimated Stream 1 petroleum and refinery gases releases. The final screening assessment for LPGs therefore concluded that these two LPGs are harmful to human health.

A recent industry submission on testing 1,3-butadiene levels in selected gas streams at natural gas processing facilities indicated that the concentration of 1,3-butadiene was below the detection limit of 1 ppm in most of the samples tested. Based on the lines of evidence indicating a low level of 1,3-butadiene, the human health risks due to volatile emissions of petroleum and refinery gasesincluding LPGs from natural gas processing facilities are therefore considered to be low.

Exposure to LPGs via other sources, such as tank filling stations, vehicle refuelling stations and consumer products (e.g., propellants in aerosols) were not considered to pose a danger to human health or the environment.

The exposure sources of concern identified in the final screening assessment are based on the release of LPGs in fugitive air emissions from various activities such as distillation, cracking or reforming processes at petroleum refineries. As such, this document will focus on these exposure sources of concern (refer to section 5).

Of note, the proposed risk management options described in this document are preliminary and may be subject to change. For further information on the final screening assessment for these two LPGs, refer to the Final Screening Assessment.

2.2 Recommendation under CEPAFootnote 4

Based on the findings of the final screening assessment conducted as per CEPA, the Ministers propose to recommend that these two LPGs: CAS RNs 68476-85-7 and 68476-86-8, be added to the List of Toxic Substances in Schedule 1 of the Act.

The Ministers have taken into consideration comments made by stakeholders during the 60-day public comment period on the draft screening assessment and risk management scope document. As the Ministers finalize the recommendation to add these two LPGs to Schedule 1, risk management instruments must be proposed and finalized within a set period of time, as outlined in sections 91 and 92 of CEPA (see section 8 for publication timelines applicable to these two LPGs).

2.3 Public comment period on the risk management scope

The risk management scope document for these two LPGs, which summarized the proposed risk management actions under consideration at that time, was published on October 11, 2014. Industry and other interested stakeholders were invited to submit comments on the risk management scope document during a 60-day comment period. Comments received on the risk management scope document were taken into consideration in the development of this document. A summary of responses to public comments received is available.

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3. Proposed risk management

3.1 Proposed human health objective

Proposed human health objectives are quantitative or qualitative statements of what should be achieved to address human health concerns. For these two LPGs, the proposed objective is focused on addressing the risks outlined in section 5 of this document. As such, the proposed human health objective for these two LPGs is to minimize human exposure to the greatest extent practicable.

3.2 Proposed risk management objective and actions

Proposed risk management objectives set quantitative or qualitative targets to be achieved by the implementation of risk management regulations, instrument(s) and/or tool(s) for a given substance or substances. The proposed risk management objective for these two LPGs is to reduce fugitive emissions from  petroleum refineries.

In order to achieve the risk management objective and reduce human health risks associated with these two substances the approach being considered is a regulation under CEPA.

In addition to the two LPGs discussed in this document, a number of other gases associated with the petroleum sector have also been determined to pose a danger to human health over the last several years. These gases include 40 site-restricted petroleum and refinery gases that were assessed and added to the list of toxic substances in 2013 (Environment Canada 2013a) and four industry-restricted petroleum and refinery gases that were assessed and added to the toxic substance list in 2014 (Environment Canada 2014a). The main sources of release and human health exposure are similar for these 44 petroleum and refinery gases as the two LPGs. It is, therefore, expected that a single regulation could effectively address all of these gases at once. A regulation to address the 44 petroleum and refinery gases is currently under development and is expected to involve the implementation of some form of mandatory leak detection and repair program at implicated facilities. The two LPGs would be managed by the same CEPA regulation.

Following the publication of this risk management approach document, additional information obtained during the public comment period and from other sources will be considered, along with the information presented in this document, in the instrument development processFootnote 5. The risk management options outlined in this document may evolve through consideration of assessments and risk management options published for other CMP substances to ensure effective, coordinated, and consistent risk management decision-making.

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4. Background

4.1 General information on substances

LPGs are produced in petroleum facilities. The raw gases are generated at the wellheads of natural gas, condensate or oil wells, and are delivered to gas processing plants for further purification and separation into individual products (e.g., natural gas, ethane, LPGs, condensates). LPGs are also produced in petroleum refineries from various crude oil refining processes such as distillation, cracking or reforming. The composition of LPGs varies (even under the same CAS RN) depending on the source (e.g., natural gas, crude oil) as well as the process operating conditions and processing units used.

4.2 Current uses and identified sectors

These two LPGs (CAS RN 68476-85-7 and 68476-86-8) were included in the Notice with respect to certain high priority petroleum substances on the Domestic Substances List, published under section 71 of CEPA (Environment Canada 2012). According to the information submitted, the total quantity of LPGs manufactured in 2010 under these CAS RNs was between 1 and 10 million tonnes, the total imported quantity was between 10 000 and 100 000 tonnes, and the total transported quantity and the total exported quantity were each less than 1 million tonnes.

LPGs have widespread uses in industry, transportation, commerce, residences and agriculture. According to information submitted under the section 71 notice as well as information gathered during an additional literature search, LPGs are used as a chemical feedstock, as a domestic fuel, and as a propellant in aerosol products (Environment Canada 2012).

The major use of LPGs is as a chemical feedstock. For example, LPGs are used as a raw material for production of ethene, or to produce butane that is further blended into gasoline to increase the volatility and octane number of the fuel (CONCAWE 1992; Competition Commission 2006; Wiley 2007; Cheminfo Services Inc. 2009; Thompson et al. 2011). LPGs can also be used as a high-quality fuel in industry for heating, cutting or soldering (Sullivan 1992; Thompson et al. 2011).

LPGs are used as fuel for small heating and cooking appliances, for barbecue tanks and for refrigerators in recreational vehicles where electricity is unavailable (Enviroharvest Inc. 2012). LPGs are also used for crop drying and powering farm equipment (Sullivan 1992; Competition Commission 2006).

LPGs are also used as an alternative automotive fuel by certain commercial taxi fleets, front-line police vehicle fleets, para-transit service fleets, and mail courier company fleets (Propane Facts 2008; Wheels.ca 2013) and as a fuel by non-road vehicles (e.g., fork lift trucks) (Sullivan 1992; Competition Commission 2006). LPGs are found as a propellant in a wide range of aerosol products available to consumers, including household cleaners, lubricants, hair spray products, automotive care products, fabric treatment products, adhesives and paints. In addition, these substances have been found as a propellant in pesticides, therapeutic products and as a processing aid in manufacturing a coating material used for food packaging in Canada. No direct contact with food is expected.

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5. Exposure sources and identified risks

LPGs may be released within petroleum facilities from activities associated with their production and processing as well as during transportation between industrial facilities, and consumer uses.

These releases are expected to be directly to air. Potential spills to water or soil are expected to evaporate quickly and rapidly disperse into the atmosphere. Hence, they are unlikely to cause ground or water pollution (CONCAWE 1992). The general physical and chemical properties of LPGs indicate that if released, their vapour can accumulate in low-lying areas as LPGs are heavier than air.

In the final screening assessment, releases from several activities related to LPGs were investigated and found not to be of concern for the environment or human health:

Fugitive emissions of LPGs in the vicinity of petroleum refineries were identified as a concern to human health. Details of this exposure scenario are presented in section 5.1.

5.1 Potential exposure to unintentional releases from petroleum facilities

Despite measures and practices that are currently in place to reduce the releases of petroleum substances from petroleum facilities, it has been recognized that fugitive releases of LPGs into the atmosphere may occur from compressor seals, processing valves, flanges, etc., due to the much higher volatility and higher mobility of gases compared with liquid substances (U.S. EPA 1995; CAPP 2007; CPPI 2011; CCME 1993). Fugitive releases tend to occur more frequently when processing equipment is not properly maintained or operated and could go undetected or unfixed for periods of time ranging from days to months (CCME 1993; CAPP 2007). Therefore, there is a potential for exposure to LPGs of the general population and the environment in the vicinity of petroleum facilities.

A critical effect for initial characterization of risk to human health for petroleum and refinery gases is carcinogenicity. 1,3-ButadieneFootnote 6 is considered to be present in LPGs. 1,3-Butadiene has been identified by Health Canada and several international regulatory agencies as a carcinogen, and is listed on Schedule 1 of CEPA. 1,3-Butadiene also exhibits genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and a plausible mode of action for induction of tumours involves direct interaction with genetic material. Consistent with the approach used to assess the site-restricted (Stream 1) and industry-restricted (Stream 2) petroleum and refinery gases (Environment Canada 2013a, 2014a), 1,3-butadiene was selected as a high-hazard component to characterize potential exposure to the general population.

Both air dispersion modelling and calculations based on the application of emission factors indicate that unintentional releases of petroleum and refinery gases contribute to the overall 1,3-butadiene concentration in ambient air in the vicinity of petroleum facilities. The estimated 1,3-butadiene concentrations decline with increasing distance from the release source and are considered not to contribute to background levels of 1,3-butadiene at distances greater than 500 meters from the facilities. Accordingly, there may be a limited contribution to general population exposure to 1,3-butadiene in the vicinity of petroleum facilities.

Natural gas processing facilities have different feedstocks, processing units, and operating conditions compared to petroleum refineries. A recent industry submission on testing the level of 1,3-butadiene in selected gas streams from natural gas processing facilities indicated that the concentration of 1,3-butadiene in most gas samples was below the detection limit of 1 ppm. Based on these analytical data, in combination with the lines of evidence previously submitted by industry on the absence of 1,3-butadiene in natural gas streams, and on the removal of 1,3-butadiene from the list of pollutants of concern from oil and natural gas production facilities and natural gas transmission and storage facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the level of 1,3-butadiene in LPGs produced by natural gas processing facilities is expected to be low. Therefore, human exposure to 1,3-butadiene due to fugitive emissions of petroleum and refinery gasesincluding LPGs from natural gas facilities is not expected.

For further information on the potential to cause ecological harm or danger to human health of these two LPGs, please refer to the Final Screening AssessmentReport for LPGs

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6. Risk management considerations

6.1 Alternatives and alternate technologies

No alternative substances or technologies were identified that would minimize or eliminate the use of LPGs. However, technologies and practices for reducing releases of these substances exist. Examples include equipment selection such as leak-proof valves and fittings, as well as work practices such as leak detection and repair programs for equipment leaks and during loading and unloading.

6.2 Socio-economic and technical considerations

Socio-economic factors will be considered in the selection and development of regulations, instrument(s) and/or tool(s) as identified in the Cabinet Directive on Regulatory Management (TBS 2012a) and the guidance provided in the Treasury Board document Assessing, Selecting, and Implementing Instruments for Government Action (TBS 2007).

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7. Overview of existing risk management

7.1 Related canadian risk management context

While Canadian regulations exist which manage hydrocarbons generally, none specifically name either of the two LPGs.

7.1.1 Federal measures

Transportation of petroleum substances in Canada is regulated under the National Energy Board Act (Canada 1985a) and the Pipeline Safety Act (Canada 2015b) (for onshore pipelines), the Canada Shipping Act, 2001 (Canada 2001a) (for ship transport), the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, 1992 (Canada 1992) (for truck and train transport) and the Railway Safety Act (Canada 1985b) (for train transport).

The National Energy Board is responsible for pipelines that cross provincial and international boundaries. In 2013, federal regulations affecting pipeline damage prevention such as the National Energy Board Onshore Pipeline Regulations were amended to strengthen requirements for management systems regarding safety, pipeline integrity, security, environmental protection and emergency management. The Pipeline Safety Act, which received royal assent on June 18, 2015, required that new regulations be in place by the Act's entry into force on June 19, 2016. The updated damage prevention regulations were published in June 2016, which included modernizing regulatory language, building in damage prevention best practices and clarifying safety practices.

Among other things, the Canada Shipping Act, 2001 deals with pollution prevention and response including discharges of oil and response measures. Regulations made under the Act include the Ballast Water and Control Management Regulations (Canada 2011a) and Vessel Pollution and Dangerous Chemicals Regulations (Canada 2012).

The Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (Canada 2011b) made under the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, 1992, prescribe how dangerous goods must be classified, the means of containment and safety marks that must be used as well as documentation and training requirements to increase safety during handling, offering for transport or transport. Technical standards referenced in the regulations set requirements for the design, manufacture, inspection and operation of the means of containment. The regulations include requirements for reporting releases or anticipated releases of dangerous goods and dangerous goods that have been lost, stolen or unlawfully interfered with. TheRegulations also require an approved Emergency Response Assistance Plan (ERAP) before certain dangerous goods can be transported or imported. LPGs, which are classified as dangerous goods with UN number UN1075, require an ERAP above 3 000 L.

Under the Railway Safety Act, the Railway Safety Management System Regulations, 2015 (Canada 2015c) require companies to establish a safety management system for the purpose of achieving the highest level of safety in railway operations. Railway operations may include the transport of various products, including dangerous goods such as petroleum substances.

The Liquefied Petroleum Gases Bulk Storage Regulations (Canada 2006) under the Canada Transportation Act set out standards for the placement of storage tanks, and additional requirements for the storage equipment, inspection, safety considerations and emergency guidelines.

The Consumer Chemicals and Containers Regulations, 2001 under the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act contain information with regards to the labeling of pressurized containers. Details specific to information that must be displayed on these containers can be found in Part 5 of the Regulations (Canada 2001b).

7.1.2 Provincial, Territorial and Municipal measures

Provincial requirements for flaring, incinerating and venting activities at well sites, facilities and pipelines include Alberta's Directive 060: Upstream Petroleum Industry Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting (Alberta 2011), British Columbia's Flaring and Venting Reduction Guideline (British Columbia 2013), and Saskatchewan's Upstream Petroleum Industry Associated Gas Conservation Directive (“S-10”) (Saskatchewan 2011).

Provincial facility operating permits may also incorporate requirements from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP)'s Best Management Practice for Fugitive Emissions Management (CAPP 2007) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Environmental Code of Practice for Measurement and Control of Fugitive Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions and Equipment Leaks (CCME 1993) (details under Non-Regulatory Measures). Additionally, existing provincial/territorial occupational health and safety legislation may specify measures to minimize occupational exposures to employees, and some of these measures also serve to reduce general population exposures.

7.1.3 Non-regulatory measures

CAPP's Best Management Practice for Fugitive Emissions Management identifies the typical key sources of fugitive emissions at upstream oil and gas facilities and presents strategies for achieving cost-effective reductions in these emissions. Similarly, the CCME Environmental Code of Practice for Measurement and Control of Fugitive VOC Emissions and Equipment Leaks describes consistent and uniform methods for the measurement, control and reduction of fugitive VOC emissions from leaking equipment. Other non-regulatory measures (e.g., guidelines, best practices, principles and methods) are also in place at many petroleum facilities to assist with reducing releases. Such control measures include appropriate material selection during the setup and design process, regular inspection and maintenance of piping and process equipment, and the implementation of leak detection and repair or other equivalent programs (SENES 2009). The industry-proposed National Framework for Petroleum Refinery Emission Reductions, developed cooperatively by all levels of government, industry, and non-governmental environmental and health organizations, provides principles and methods for various jurisdictions to establish facility emission caps for air pollutants (CCME 2005).

7.2 Pertinent international risk management context

7.2.1 United States

Several regulations pertaining to refineries and natural gas processing facilities have been developed under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program of the Clean Air Act. In September 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency issued a final rule that will further control air emissions from petroleum refineries, including a requirement for facilities to monitor emissions around their fence lines.

Transportation of substances that may pose a flammability or explosion hazard is covered under the U.S. Department of Transportation's Hazardous Materials Regulations (CFR 2005).

7.2.2 Europe

The Directive on Industrial Emissions (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) (EU 2010), which entered into force in 2013, sets out the main principles for the permitting and control of installations based on an integrated approach and the application of best available techniques. Operators of industrial installations conducting activities covered by the Directive (including refineries) are required to obtain an environmental permit from the national authority in their country.

Transportation of flammable or explosive substances is addressed by the Regulations Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (OTIF 2006), and similar measures for other modes of transportation.

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8. Next steps

8.1 Public comment period

Industry and other interested stakeholders are invited to submit comments on the content of this risk management approach document or other information that would help to inform decision-making. Please submit additional information and comments prior to April 26, 2017.

Comments and information submissions on the risk management approach document should be submitted to the address provided below:

Environment and Climate Change Canada
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3
Tel: 1-888-228-0530 | 819-956-9313
Fax: 819-953-7155
Email: eccc.substances.eccc@canada.ca

Companies who have a business interest in these two LPGs are encouraged to identify themselves as stakeholders. Stakeholders will be informed of future decisions regarding these substances and may be contacted for further information.

Following the public comment period on the risk management approach document, the Government of Canada will initiate the development of the specific risk management instrument(s), where necessary. Comments received on the risk management approach document will be taken into consideration in the selection or development of these instrument(s). Consultation will also take place as instrument(s) are developed.

8.2 Timing of actions

Timing of actions
ActionsDate
Electronic consultation on the risk management approach documentFebruary 25, 2017 to April 2
Publication of responses to comments on the proposed risk management approach documentNo later than February 2019
Publication of the proposed instrument(s)No later than February 2019
Formal public comment period on the proposed instrumentNo later than February 2020
Publication of the final instrumentNo later than October 2020

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9. References

Alberta. 2011. Energy Resources Conservation Board Directive 060: Upstream Petroleum Industry Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting.

British Columbia. 2013. BC Oil & Gas Commission Flaring and Venting Reduction Guideline.

Canada. 1992. Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, 1992. S.C., 1992, ch. 34. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.

Canada. 1999. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. S.C., 1999, c. 33, Canada Gazette Part III, vol. 22, No. 3.

Canada. 2001a. Canada Shipping Act, 2001. S.C., 2001, ch. 26. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.

Canada. 2001b. Canada Consumer Product Safety Act: Consumer Chemicals and Containers Regulations, 2001 (Part 5), 1 August, 2001, SOR/2001-269, Canada Gazette. Part II, Volume 135, Issue 17.

Canada. 2006. Canada Transportation Act: Liquefied Petroleum Gases Bulk Storage Regulations, 22 March, 2006, SOR/79-201, s. 2.

Canada. 2011a. Canada Shipping Act, 2001: Ballast Water Control and Management Regulations, 9 November, 2011, SOR/2011-237, Canada Gazette. Part II, Volume 145, Issue 23.

Canada. 2011b. Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, 1992: Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations, 3 March, 2011, SOR/2011-60, Canada Gazette. Part II, Volume 145, Issue 6.

Canada. 2012. Canada Shipping Act, 2001: Vessel Pollution and Dangerous Chemicals Regulations, 11 April, 2012, Canada Gazette. Part II, Volume 146, Issue 8.

Canada. 2013. National Energy Board Act: National Energy Board Onshore Pipeline Regulations, 10 April, 2013, SOR/2013-49. Canada Gazette. Part II, Volume 147, Issue 8.

Canada. 2015a. Red Tape Reduction Act.

Canada. 2015b. Pipeline Safety Act. S.C., 2015, ch. 21. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.

Canada. 2015c. Railway Safety Management System Regulations, 2015, 5 February, 2015, Canada Gazette. Part II, Volume 149, Issue 4.

Canada. 2016. Draft Regulation for Pipeline Damage Prevention, March 2016. Proposed regulations in Canada Gazette, Part I.

[CAPP] Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. 2007. Best management practices: Management of fugitive emissions at upstream oil and gas facilities.

[CCME] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 1993. Environmental Code of Practice for Measurement and Control of Fugitive VOC Emissions from Equipment Leaks.

[CCME] Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. 2005. National Framework for Petroleum Refinery Emission Reductions.

[CFR] Code of Federal Regulations. 2005. Title 49, Subtitle B, Chapter I: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Department of Transportation.

[Cheminfo] Cheminfo Services Inc. 2009. Liquefied petroleum gases, final report. Background Technical Study on the Use and Release Potential of Certain High Priority Petroleum Substances Under the Chemicals Management Plan, in Sectors Other than the Petroleum Sector. Contract Report to Environment Canada.

Competition Commission. 2006. Market investigation into supply of bulk liquefied petroleum gas for domestic use. Appendix B. [cited 2013 June].

[CONCAWE] Conservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe. 1992. Liquefied petroleum gas. Product dossier no. 92/102 [32].

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Environment Canada, Health Canada. 2013a. Screening assessment for Petroleum and refinery gases [site-restricted] [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Environment Canada; Health Canada. [cited 2013 Aug.].

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[EU] European Union. 2010. Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control).

[OTIF] Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail. 2006. Amendments to the Regulations Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID).

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[SENES] SENES Consultants Limited. 2009. Review of current and proposed regulatory and non-regulatory management tools pertaining to selected petroleum substances under the Chemical Management Plan. Ottawa (ON): SENES Consultants Limited.

Sullivan M 1992. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Prepared for California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board Research Division. Contract No. A032-095. [cited 2013 June].

Thompson SM, Robertson G. Johnson E. 2011. Liquefied Petroleum Gas in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

[TBS] Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. 2007. Assessing, Selecting, and Implementing Instruments for Government Action.

[TBS] Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. 2012a. Cabinet Directive on Regulatory Management.

[TBS] Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. 2012b. Red Tape Reduction Action Plan.

[US EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1995. Protocol for equipment leak emission estimates. Research Triangle Park (NC): U.S. EPA, Emission Standards Division, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Report No.: EPA-453/R-95-017. [cited 2008 Aug.].

Wheels.ca. 2013. Interview with Canada Post Ottawa fleet manager. [cited in 2013 Aug.].

Wiley 2007. Wiley Critical Content: Petroleum Technology Volumes 1 and 2: Petroleum Refinery Processes (Chapter 7) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Chapter 23). Published by John Wiley & Sons.

World LP Gas Association. 2012. Autogas Incentive Policies: A country-by-country analysis of why & how governments promote Autogas & what works. [cited 2013 June].

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