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Reference List (1982 - Present)


2002 Entries

02-01      Scott*, B.F., C. Spencer, C.H. Marvin, D.C. MacTavish, and D.C.G. Muir. Distribution of haloacetic acids in the water columns of the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Malawi. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36: 1893-1898, 2002. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary: The TLW (Algoma) was part of a study to assess the influence of urbanization on concentrations and profiles of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in the Canadian Great Lakes and in Lake Malawi in Africa. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) concentrations were constant throughout the water column, but chloroacetic acid (CAA) concentrations varied with depth. TFAs increased from L. Superior to L. Ontario (18 to 150 mg/l). Precipitation (measured at the TLW) may be a major input of HAA to L. Superior, especially since the lake has a retention time of 191 years. CAA’s were highest in urbanized areas along the Detroit R., but low levels measured in the populous L. Malawi watershed indicate that population density alone is not a major source of HAAs. In general high HAA levels appear to parallel industrial activity.

02-02     Treitz*, P.M., and St-Onge, B. Three-dimensional analysis of forest structure and terrain using LIDAR technology. GEOIDE Project #50 Final Report, GEOIDE Business Centre, Université Laval, Laval, QC, 27pp, (+3 Appendices), 2002. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary: Project objective was to develop methods and algorithms for collecting, processing and analysing Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data to derive forest structural and terrain information. A high resolution LIDAR-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the TLW was acquired that out-performed other data sources. The LIDAR DEM was used with air photos to produce three-dimensional information on the forest canopy.

02-03     Eimers*, M.C. Sources and control of sulphur export in Precambrian Shield catchments in south-central Ontario. PhD thesis, Dep’t. Of Biology, Waterloo University, Waterloo, Ontario. 229pp, 2002. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

: While the thesis focuses on Plastic Lake in Haliburton Ontario, samples of upland and wetland soil from sub-basin 50 in the TLW were included in laboratory experiments to determine the effect of drying/re-wetting and increased temperature on SO4 release (Chapter 5). Organic (Sphagnum) soils showed a 3- to 4-fold increase in mobile SO4 following drying/re-wetting. Temperature had a relatively lesser influence on SO4 release. Mineral soils which contain a relatively larger pool of total S are not as responsive to changes in moisture.

02-04      Lim, K.P., Morrison, and K. Baldwin. Estimating aboveground biomass using lidar remote sensing. In: Proc. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 4879: 289-296, 2002.

: Field data on biomass in the TLW were collected from 49 sites in July 2000 and used to confirm measurements from lidar (light detection and ranging) data. The intensity return data (LHIR) proved to be the best predictor of total above-ground biomass.

02-05 Buehler*, S.S, and R.A. Hites. The Great Lakes Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 354A – 359A, 2002. (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

A joint USA/Canada network to measure atmospheric concentrations of toxic substances near the Great Lakes was established in 1990. The IADN (International Atmospheric Deposition Network) consists of monitoring stations on each of the Great Lakes, the Turkey Lakes Watershed representing Lake Superior. A long-term data set measuring temporal and spatial trends of toxic organics in precipitation and in the atmosphere as well as PCB and PAH loadings, provide a valuable resource for government and university researchers attempting to pinpoint possible sources of pollutants entering the Great Lakes.

02-06  Jeffries D.S.  Foreword: The Turkey Lakes Watershed study after two decades.  Wat Air Soil Pollut: Focus 2: 1-3, 2002.

Summary: An introduction to the third TLWjournal issue. It and the previous TLWissue (Ecosystems 4: 501-567, 2001) contain papers presented at the 1999 TLWWorkshop.

02-07  Foster*, N.W., and P.W. Hazlett.  Trends in water chemistry in a maple forest on a steep slope at the Turkey Lakes Watershed.  Wat. Air Soil Pollut.: Focus 2, 23-36, 2002.  (*Contact D.S. Jeffries for correspondence).

Summary:The chemistry of bulk precipitation and soil percolate from the forest floor and below the main rooting zone of a mature maple forest on a steep slope were analyzed to identify monotonic trends. Over the monitoring period (1985-1998), SO4 in precipitation, and SO4, Ca and Mg in soil waters showed significant negative trends. From 1991 to 1998, only soil SO4 declined during spring melt.

02-08  McNicol, D.K.  Relation of lake acidification and recovery to fish, Common Loon and Common Merganser  occurrence in Algoma lakes.  Wat. Air Soil Pollut.: Focus 2, 151-168, 2002.

Summary: Logistic regression models were developed to predict the occurrence of fish, the common loon and the common merganser in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics of Algoma lakes (including the Turkey lakes). These models were linked to the Waterfowl Acidification Response Modelling System to assess the likely effect of expected and hypothetical reductions in North American SO2 emissions on habitat quality in the Algoma Region.

02-09 Jeffries, D.S., R.G. Semkin, F.D. Beall, and J. Franklyn.  Temporal trends in water chemistry in the Turkey Lakes Watershed, Ontario, Canada. Wat. Air Soil Pollut.: Focus 2, 5-22, 2002.

Summary: Since 1980, SO4 has been decreasing in theTLWas an apparent response to emissions reductions, yet there is little evidence of acidification recovery. Decreasing base cation concentrations compensate for declining SO4. Groundwater showed increasing NO3 concentrations. Stored S becomes mobilized from wetlands and soils following drought, influencing trends.

02-10  Smokorowski, K.E., and J.R.M. Kelso. Trends in fish community structure, biomass, and production in three Algoma, Ontario lakes.  Wat. Air Soil Pollut.: Focus 2, 129-150, 2002.

Summary: Fisheries data for 20 years from Little Turkey and Wishart in theTLWand Quinn Lake SW of the TLWshowed high inter-annual variability, but stability in terms of biomass and production. Species diversity remained stable, although the composition changed. Catch-per-unit effort was not necessarily a good measure of fishery decline since it does not reflect biotic interactions.

02-11 Trick, C.G., I.F. Creed., M.F. Henry, and D.S. Jeffries.  Distribution of diatoms in a forested stream containing a              series of interconnected lakes.  Wat. Air Soil Pollut.: Focus 2, 103-128, 2002.

Summary: A study of the diatom flora in the TLW revealed assemblages were shaped by DOC and DIC concentrations and by the species and concentration of N compounds along the stream path through the watershed.  In the upper reaches where DOC and TKN are high, an acid-tolerant taxa dominated, while a different community was seen in the lowlands where DIC and NO3-N are prevalent.  Community abundance and diversity increased steadily downstream before decreasing near the watershed outlet.  By imparting species-specific stresses, the flow regime further shaped the structure of the diatom community within the watershed.

02-12  Hazlett, P.W. and N.W. Foster. Topographic controls of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon transport from a tolerant hardwood hillslope.  Wat. Air Soil Pollut.: Focus 2, 63-80, 2002.

Summary: To examine nutrient budgets for steep slopes, lateral movement of water and nutrients on a one-hectare area at theTLWwere measured during 1987-1990. Nutrient concentrations and fluxes varied with slope position, reflecting the soil horizons through which the water passed. Greater NO3, SO4 and DOCconcentrations flowed from the upper slopes, while less-developed mineral soils on the lower slopes retained SO4, N and C influencing nutrient input to the lake.

02-13  Creed, I.F., C.G. Trick, L.E. Band, and I.K. Morrison. Characterizing the spatial heterogeneityof soil carbon and nitrogen pools in the Turkey Lakes Watershed: a comparison of regression techniques.  Wat. Air Soil Pollut.: Focus 2, 81-102, 2002.

Summary: Multiple linear regression models indicate that topography in theTLWaccounts for a significant portion of the spatial heterogeneity in the organic C and total N pools of the watershed soils. Tree regression models explained a greater percent of the variance. Forest and topography are important in the development of soil properties, but are scale dependent.

02-14  Semkin, R.G., P.W. Hazlett, F.D. Beall, and D.S. Jeffries.  Development of stream water chemistry during spring melt in a northern hardwood forest.   Wat. Air Soil Pollut.: Focus 2, 37-61, 2002.

Summary: The role of snowmelt and subsurface hydrology in determining the chemistry of a small headwater stream in the Turkey Lakes Watershed (TLW) was evaluated for the spring melt periods 1992 to 1996. Pre-melt streamflow contributed 9% of the average spring melt measured at the basin outlet, while water flowing through the forest floor and upper mineral soil contributed 28% and 63% respectively.