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Dr. Jim Christian

Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis

Picture of Dr. Jim Christian

Research Scientist
Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis
SCI A214
Telephone: 250-363-8319
Fax: 250-363-8247

Research Interests

  • Ocean biogeochemical cycles


  • PhD 1995, University of Hawaii at Manoa


  • Tesdal, J.-E., J.R. Christian, A.H. Monahan, and K. von Salzen, 2014. Evaluation of diverse approaches for estimating DMS concentration and flux at global scale. Environmental Chemistry, in revision
  • Christian, J.R., 2014. Timing of the departure of ocean biogeochemical cycles from the preindustrial state. PLoS One, doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0109820
  • Anderson, T.R., J.R. Christian, and K.J. Flynn, 2014. Modeling DOM Biogeochemistry. pp. 635-667 in D.A. Hansell and C.A. Carlson, eds., Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, 2nd edition, Elsevier.
  • Janssen, D.J., T.M. Conway, S.G. John, J.R. Christian, D.I. Kramer, T.F. Pedersen and J.T. Cullen, 2014. An undocumented water column sink for cadmium in open ocean oxygen deficient zones. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111: 6888–6893
  • Schwinger, J., J.F. Tjiputra, C. Heinze, L. Bopp, J.R. Christian, M. Gehlen, T. Ilyina, C.D. Jones, D. Salas-Melia , J. Segschneider, R. Seferian, and I. Totterdell, 2014. Non-linearity of ocean carbon feedbacks in CMIP5 earth system models. Journal of Climate 27: 3869-3888
  • Deal, C.J., N. Steiner, J. Christian, J.C. Kinney , K. Denman, S. Elliott, G. Gibson, M. Jin, D. Lavoie, S. Lee, W. Lee, W. Maslowski, J. Wang, and E. Watanabe, 2014. Progress and challenges in biogeochemical modeling of the Pacific Arctic Region. pp. 393-445 in J.M. Grebmeier and W. Maslowski, eds. The Pacific Arctic Region: Ecosystem Status and Trends in a Rapidly Changing Environment. Springer.
  • Steiner, N.S., J.R. Christian, K. Six, A. Yamamoto, and M. Yamamoto-Kawai, 2013. Future ocean acidification in the Canada Basin and surrounding Arctic Ocean from CMIP5 earth system models. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009069
  • Arora, V.K., G.J. Boer, P. Friedlingstein, M. Eby, C.D. Jones, J.R. Christian, G. Bonan, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, T. Hajima, T. Ilyina, K. Lindsay, J.F. Tjiputra, and T. Wu, 2013. Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP5 Earth system models. Journal of Climate 26: 5289–5314.
  • Steiner, N.S., W.G. Lee, and J. R. Christian, 2013. Enhanced gas fluxes in small sea ice leads and cracks - Effects on CO2 exchange and ocean acidification. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20100
  • Denman, K.L., J.R. Christian, N. Steiner, H.O. Portner, and Y. Nojiri, 2011. Potential impacts of future ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 1019-1029.
  • Kramer, D., J.T. Cullen, J.R. Christian, W.K. Johnson, and T.F. Pedersen, 2011. Silver in the subarctic northeast Pacific Ocean: Explaining the basin scale distribution of silver. Marine Chemistry 123: 133-142.
  • Arora, V.K., J.F. Scinocca, G.J. Boer, J.R. Christian, K.L. Denman, G.M. Flato, V.V. Kharin, W.G. Lee, and W.J. Merryfield, 2011. Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases. Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1029/2010GL046270.
  • DFO, 2010. Ocean Fertilization: Mitigating Environmental Impacts of Future Scientific Research. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2010/012.
  • Christian, J.R., V.K. Arora, G.J. Boer, C.L. Curry, K. Zahariev, K.L. Denman, G.M. Flato, W.G. Lee, W.J. Merryfield, N.T. Roulet, and J. F. Scinocca, 2010. The global carbon cycle in the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM1): Preindustrial control simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2008JG000920
  • Turk, D., C.J. Zappa, C.S. Meinen, J.R. Christian, D.T. Ho, A.G. Dickson, and W.R. McGillis, 2010. Rain impacts on CO2 exchange in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1029/2010GL045520.
  • Wong, C.S., J.R. Christian, S.-K.E. Wong, J. Page, L. Xie, and S. Johannessen, 2010. Carbon dioxide in surface seawater of the eastern North Pacific Ocean (Line P), 1973-2005. Deep-Sea Research I 57: 687-695
  • Arora, V.K., G.J. Boer, C.L. Curry, J.R. Christian, K. Zahariev, K.L. Denman, G.M. Flato, J.F. Scinocca, W.J. Merryfield, and W.G. Lee, 2009. The effect of terrestrial photosynthesis down regulation on the twentieth-century carbon budget simulated with the CCCma Earth System Model. Journal of Climate 22: 6066-6088
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., and others, 2009. Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Marine Systems 76: 113-133
  • Christian, J.R., R.A. Feely, M. Ishii, R. Murtugudde, and X. Wang, 2008. Testing an ocean carbon model with observed sea surface pCO2 and DIC in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JC004428
  • Hood, R.R., and J.R. Christian, 2008. Ocean Nitrogen Cycle Modeling. pp. 1445-1495 in D.G. Capone, D.A. Bronk, M.R. Mulholland, and E.J. Carpenter, eds. Nitrogen in the Marine Environment, 2nd edition, (Academic Press).
  • Zahariev, K., J.R. Christian, and K.L. Denman, 2008. A global ocean carbon model with new parameterizations of iron limitation, calcification, and N2 fixation: preindustrial, historical, and fertilization simulations. Progress in Oceanography 77: 56-82
  • Christian, J.R., 2007. Advection in plankton models with variable elemental ratios. Ocean Dynamics 57: 63-71
  • Veillette, J., J. Sarrazin, A.J. Gooday, J. Galeron, J.C. Caprais, A. Vangriesheim, J. Etoubleau, J.R. Christian, and S.K. Juniper, 2007. Ferromanganese nodule fauna in the Tropical North Pacific Ocean: Species richness, faunal cover and spatial distribution. Deep-Sea Research I 54: 1912–1935
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., J.A. Dusenberry, L.A. Anderson, R. Armstrong, F. Chai, J.R. Christian, S.C. Doney, J. Dunne, M. Fujii, R. Hood, D. McGillicuddy, J.K. Moore, M. Schartau, Y.H. Spitz, and J.D. Wiggert, 2007. Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models: the role of multiple planktonic groups. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: doi:10.1029/2006JC003852
  • McKinley, G.A., T. Takahashi, E. Buitenhuis, F. Chai, J.R. Christian, S.C. Doney, C. Le Quere, I. Lima, R. Murtugudde, L. Shi, and P. Wetzel, 2006. North Pacific carbon cycle response to climate variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: doi:10.1029/2005JC003173
  • Wang, X., J.R. Christian, R. Murtugudde, and A.J. Busalacchi, 2006. Spatial and temporal variability of the surface water pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in the equatorial Pacific during 1980-2003: a basin-scale carbon model. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC002972
  • Wiggert, J.D., R. Murtugudde, and J.R. Christian, 2006. Annual ecosystem variability in the tropical Indian Ocean: Results of a coupled bio-physical ocean general circulation model. Deep-Sea Research II 53: 644-676
  • Wang, X., J.R. Christian, R. Murtugudde, and A.J. Busalacchi, 2006. Spatial and temporal variability in new production in the equatorial Pacific during 1980-2003: physical and biogeochemical controls. Deep-Sea Research II 53: 677-697
  • Christian, J.R., 2005. Biogeochemical cycling in the oligotrophic ocean: Redfield and non-Redfield models. Limnology and Oceanography 50: 646-657
  • Wang, X., J.R. Christian, R. Murtugudde, and A.J. Busalacchi, 2005. Ecosystem dynamics and export production in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific: A modeling study of impact of ENSO. Geophysical Research Letters 32, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021538
  • Christian, J.R., R. Murtugudde, J. Ballabrera-Poy, and C.R. McClain, 2004. A ribbon of dark water: phytoplankton blooms in the meanders of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent. Deep-Sea Research II 51: 209-228
  • McClain, C.R., S.R. Signorini, and J.R. Christian, 2004. Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean color satellites. Deep-Sea Research II 51: 281-301
  • Murtugudde, R., L. Wang, E. Hackert, J. Beauchamp, J. Christian, and A.J. Busalacchi, 2004. Remote sensing of the Indo-Pacific region: ocean colour, sea level, winds and sea surface temperatures. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25: 1423-1435
  • Christian, J.R., and R. Murtugudde, 2003. Tropical Atlantic variability in a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model. Deep-Sea Research II 50: 2947-2969
  • Ballabrera-Poy, J., R.G. Murtugudde, J.R. Christian, and A.J. Busalacchi, 2003. Signal-to-noise ratios of observed monthly tropical ocean color. Geophysical Research Letters 30, doi: 10.1029/2003GL016995
  • Erickson, D.J., J.L. Hernandez, P. Ginoux, W.W. Gregg, C. McClain, and J. Christian, 2004. Atmospheric iron delivery and surface oceanic biological activity in the Southern Ocean and Patagonian region. Geophysical Research Letters 30, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017241
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