The Fourth Generation Atmospheric General Circulation Model
Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis
As in The Third Generation Atmospheric General Circulation Model(McFarlane et al. (2005), Scinocca et al. (2008)), the spectral transform method is used in AGCM4to represent the horizontal spatial structure of the main prognostic variables while the vertical representation is in terms of rectangular finite elements defined for a hybrid vertical coordinate as described by Laprise and Girard (1990).
The spectral representation currently used in AGCM4corresponds to a higher horizontal resolution than that used in The Third Generation Atmospheric General Circulation Model, being comprised of a 63 wave triangularly truncated (T63) spherical harmonic expansion. As in The Third Generation Atmospheric General Circulation Model, the vertical domain of AGCM4extends from the surface to the stratopause region (1hPa, approximately 50km above the surface), but the vertical resolution is slightly higher in AGCM4with more uniform resolution across the tropopause. In the vertical the domain is spanned by 35 layers. The mid point of the lowest layer is approximately 50 meters above the surface at sea level. Layer depths increase monotonically with height from approximately 100 meters at the surface to 3km in the lower stratosphere.
There have been substantial changes to physical parameterizations in AGCM4. The radiative transfer scheme in The Third Generation Atmospheric General Circulation Model has been replaced by a new scheme that includes a new correlated-k distribution model (Li (2002); (Li and Barker (2002), (Li and Barker (2005)) and a more general treatment of radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres using the McICAmethodology ((Pincus et al. (2003); (Barker et al (2008)). In conjunction with other parameterizations, the radiative transfer scheme accounts for the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. A prognostic bulk aerosol scheme with a full sulphur cycle, along with organic and black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt has been added (Lohmann et al. (1999); von Salzen et al. (2000); Croft et al. (2005)). A fully prognostic single-moment cloud microphysics scheme is now used in the model, based on the work of Lohmann and Roeckner (1996), Rotstayn (1997), Khairoutdinov and Kogan (2000). A statistical approach is used for macrophysical properties of layer clouds (Chaboureau and Bechtold (2005)). A new shallow convection scheme has been added to the model (von Salzen et al. (2005)). Approaches to local and non-local turbulent mixing by Abdella and McFarlane (1996) and McFarlane et al. (2005) were improved for AGCM4.
AGCM4has two strategies to deal with the artifacts of spectral advection (Gibbs effect). In the first, the hybrid variable approach adopted for the moisture variable in The Third Generation Atmospheric General Circulation Model has been generalized and extended to tracers in AGCM4(see Section 2.2 of Scinocca et al. (2008)). The second strategy follows an approach first suggested by Lander and Hoskins (1997) where both input fields and the output tendencies from the physics package are spatially filtered (further details may be found in Scinocca et al. (2008).
Barker, H. W. and J. N. S. Cole and J.-J. Morcrette and R. Pincus and P. Raisanen and K. von Salzen and P. A. Vaillancourt, 2008: The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation: An assessment using several global atmospheric models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 134, 1463-1478.
Chaboureau, J.-P. and P. Bechtold, 2005: Statistical representation of clouds in a regional model and the impact on the diurnal cycle of convection during tropical convection, cirrus and nitrogen oxides (TROCCINOX). J. Geophys. Res., 110, D17103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005645.
Li, J., 2002, Accounting for Unresolved Clouds in a 1D Infrared Radiative Transfer Model. Part I: Solution for Radiative Transfer, Including Cloud Scattering and Overlap. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 59, 3302-3320..
Li, J. and H. W. Barker, 2002, Accounting for Unresolved Clouds in a 1D Infrared Radiative Transfer Model. Part II: Horizontal Variability of Cloud Water Path. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 59, 3321-3339..
Rotstayn, L.D., 1997: A physically based scheme for the treatment of stratiform clouds and precipitation in large-scale models. I: Description and evaluation of the microphysical processes. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 1227-1282..
von Salzen, K., H. G. Leighton, P. A. Ariya, L. A. Barrie, S. L. Gong, J.-P. Blanchet, L. Spacek, U. Lohmann, and L. I. Kleinman, 2000: Sensitivity of sulphate aerosol size distributions and CCN concentrations over North America to SO[x] emissions and HO concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 9741-9765.
von Salzen, K., N. A. McFarlane, and M. Lazare, 2005: The role of shallow convection in the water and energy cycles of the atmosphere, Clim. Dyn., 25, 671-688, doi: 10.1007/s00382-005-0051-2.
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