Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Precursors: An Action Plan for Assessment and Management
In 2004, the New Substances Program of Environment Canada (EC) and Health Canada (HC) assessed four new substances which are considered sources of PFCAs. These substances are all fluorotelomer based polymers. Fluorotelomers are used to add fluorinated carbon chains to more complex materials. Various reactive functional groups are used to attach these moieties, e.g. alcohols, epoxides, olefins. These fluorotelomer substances can be released from these complex materials. Fluorotelomer alcohols have been shown to form PFCAs in the environment, and a similar fate is expected for the olefins and epoxides. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that some PFCAs are bioaccumulative, persistent, subject to long-range transport (via a precursor), widespread in Arctic wildlife and associated with adverse effects in laboratory animals. Evidence shows a trend of increasing concentrations of long chain PFCAs in wildlife based on tissue samples archived over the last 30 years.
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Author: Environment Canada
Language of Document: Separate English/French
Document Type: Plan
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